Grasas y Aceites, Vol 44, No 6 (1993)

Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.1993.v44.i6.1061

M. Z. Sitohy
Biochemistry Department and Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt

E. H. Badr
Biochemistry Department and Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt

M. Perifanova-Nemska
Department of Essential Oils and Fatty Acids, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

T. S. Khadjiski
Department of Essential Oils and Fatty Acids, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Abstract


Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions.
The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study.
Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

Keywords


Enzymatic extraction; Physico-chemical properties; Protein residue; Sunflower oil

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