Grasas y Aceites, Vol 62, No 4 (2011)

Chemical analyses of the seeds of some forage legumes from Turkey. A chemotaxonomic approach


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.125210

A. Kocak
Bingol University, Art & Science Faculty, Biology Department, Turkey

K. Kokten
Bingol University, Agriculture Faculty, Field Crops Department, Turkey

E. Bagci
Firat University, Art & Science Faculty, Biology Department, Turkey

M. Akcura
Bingol University, Agriculture Faculty, Field Crops Department, Turkey

S. Hayta
Bitlis Eren University, Art & Science Faculty, Biology Department, Turkey

A. Bakoglu
Programme of Field Crops, Collage of Bingol, Turkey

O. Kilic
Bingol University, Art & Science Faculty, Biology Department, Turkey

Abstract


The seeds of six forage legumes (Leguminosae) were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of forage legume seeds were found to be between 23.1 and 37.2%. On the other hand, the tannin contents of the same seeds were found to be between 0.67 and 6.33%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by gas chromatography of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The seed oils of Lathyrus annuus, Onobrychis crista-galli, Trigonella foenum-graceum, Lotus corniculatus, and Leuceana leucocephala species contain 50.0, 59.4, 69.5, 37.06, and 52.6% linoleic acid, respectively, as the major component fatty acids, whereas in the seed oil of Lathyrus cicer, linolenic acid accounts for 29.7% as the major component fatty acid. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. In the study of taxa, palmitic acid was found in the major saturated fatty acids, on the other hand oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were found in major unsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords


Fatty acid; Leguminosae; Protein; Seed oil; Tannin

Full Text:


PDF

References


Abdulrazak SA, Kahindi R K, Muinga R W. 2006. Effects of Madras thorn, Leuceana and G liricidia supplementation on feed intake, digestibility and growth of goats fed Panicum hay. Livestock Res. Rural Develop., 18, 124-128.

Akpinar N, Akpinar MA, Turkoglu S. 2001. Total lipid content and fatty acid composition of the seed of some Vicia L. species. Food Chem., 74, 449-453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00162-5

AOAC, 1990. Official Method of Analysis. 15th. edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington, DC. USA.

Bagci E, Bruehl L, Aitzetmüller K, Altan Y . 2004. Fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Turkish Boraginaceae. Nordic J. Bot., 22, 719-726. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2002.tb01935.x

Bagci E, Bruehl L, Aitzetmüller K, Altan Y . 2003. A Chemotaxonomic Approach on the Fatty Acid and Tocochromanol Content of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Turkish J. Bot., 27, 141-147.

Bagci E, G enc H, Sahin A. 2001. Fatty acid composition of four Lathyrus aphaca L. varieties. A chemosystematic approach. Pakistan J. Bio., 4, 842-874.

Bagci E, Vural M. 2001. Fatty acid composition of Astragalus pycnocephalus var. pycnocephalus and Astragalus condensatus, a chemotaxonomic approach. J. Inst. Sci. Technol. Gazi Univ., 14, 1305-1311.

Bagci E. 2006. Study of fatty acid patterns of some Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) species from Turkey. Chem. Nat. Prod., 42, 645-648.

Bagci E. 2007. Fatty acid and tocochromannol patterns of two Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) species. Int. J. Sci. Technol., 2, 93-98.

Bakoglu A, Bagci E, Ciftci H. 2009. Fatty acids, protein contents and metal composition of some feed crops from Turkey. J. Food Agric. Environ., 7, 343-346.

Balogun AM, Fetuga BL. 1985. Fatty acid composition of seed oils some members of the Leguminosae family. Food Chem., 17, 175-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(85)90066-4

Barry TN, Manley TR. 1984. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 2. Quantitative digestion of carbohydrates and protein. Br. J. Nut., 51, 493–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN19840055

Basaran U, Acar Z, Asci OO, Mut H, Ayan I. 2007. Agricultural importances, using possibilities and toxic substances of Lathyrus species. J. Fac. Agric., OMU. 22, 139-148.

Broca C, G ross R, Petit P, Sauvaire Y, Manteghetti M, Tournier M, Masiello P, G omis R, R ibes G . 1999. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: experimental evidence of its insulinotropic and antidiabetic properties. Am. J. Physiol., 277, 617-623.

Christie WW. 1990. G as Chromatography and Lipids: A practical guide. The Oily Press, Ayr, pp. 307.

Dalzell SA, Stewart JL, Tolera A, McNeill DM. 1998. Chemical composition of Leucaena and implication for forage quality. In: H.M. Shelton, R.C. Gutteridge, B.F. Mullen & R.A. Bray (eds). Leucaena-Adaptation, quality and farming systems.Vol. 86 ACIAR. Canberra, pp. 227-246.

Daulatab CD, Hosamani KM, Deasi VA, Alagawadi KR. 1987. Cyclopropenoid fatty acids in Leguminosae oils. JAOCS 64, 1423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02636992

Grela E R, Gunter KD. 1995. Fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of some legume seeds. Animal Feed Sci. Technol., 52, 325-331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)00733-P

Hamberg M, Fahistadius P. 1992. On the specificity of a fatty acid epoxygenase in broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Plant Physiol., 99, 987-995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.99.3.987 PMid:16669029    PMCid:1080574

Hanbury CD, White CL, Mullan BP, Siddique KHM. 2000. A review of the potential of Lathyrus sativus L. and L. cicera L. grain for use as animal feed. Animal Feed Sci. Technol., 87, 1-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00186-3

Hara A, Radin N S. 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low toxicity solvent. Anal. Biochem., 90, 420-436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(78)90046-5

Higuchi M, Terao J, Jwai K. 1982. Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometric determination of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.)DC.) J. Nut. Sci. Vit. 28, 511-518. http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.28.511 PMid:7161648

Ivanov SA, Aitzetmuller K. 1998. Undersuchungen über die tocopherol-und-tocotrienol Zusammensetzung der samenlipide einiger arten der Bulagarischen Flora. Fett. Lipid 100, 348-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4133(199808)100:8<348::AID-LIPI348>3.3.CO;2-9

Jackson FS, McNabb WC, Barry TN, Foo Y L, Peters JS. 1996. The condensed tannin content of a range of subtropical and temperate forages and the reactivity of condensed tanin with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) protein. J. Sci. Food Agric. 72, 483-492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199612)72:4<483::AID-JSFA684>3.0.CO;2-G

Krishna AG, Prabhakar JV, Aitzetmuller K. 1997. Tocopherol and fatty acid composition of some Indian pulses. JAOCS 74, 1603-1606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-997-0084-2

Liu K Brown EA, Orthoefer F. 1995. Fatty acid composition within each structural part and section of a soybean seed. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43, 381-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00050a023

Lu Y, Sun Y, Foo LY, McNabb WC, Molan AL. 2000. Phenolic glycosides of forage legume Onobrychis viciifolia. Phytochemistry 55, 67-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00143-6

Mahadewamma S, Tharanathan T. 2004. Processing of legumes. R esistant starch and dietary fiber contents. J. Food Qual. 27, 289-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2004.00620.x

Makkar HPS, Blu.mmel M, Becker K. 1995. Formation of complexes between polyvinylpolypyrrolidone or polyethylene glycols and tannins and their implication in gas production and true digestibility in vitro techniques. Br. J. Nut. 73, 897-913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN19950095

Mangan JL. 1988. Nutritional effects of tannins in animal feeds. Nut. Res. Rev., 1, 209-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/NRR19880015 PMid:19094367

Norton BW. 1994. Antinutritive and toxic factors in forage tree legumes. Tropical Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture. CAB International, pp 202-215.

Petit P, Sauviaire Y, Hillaire-Buys DM, Leconte OM, Baissac YG . 1995. Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: Extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol. Steroids 60, 674-680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-128X(95)00090-D

Sengupta A, Basu S. 1978. Trygliseride composition of Enteda phasolides seed oil. J. Am. Sci. Food Agric. 29, 677-682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740290804 PMid:723230

Terrill TH, R owan AM, Douglas G B, Barry TN. 1992. Determination of extractable and bound condensed tannin concentrations in forage plants, protein concentrate meals and cereal grains. J. Sci. Food Agric. 58, 321-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740580306

Tharib SM, Veitch G BA. 1983. The fatty acids of Phaseolus coccineus and Gleditsia triacanthos (Family: Leguminosae). Int. J. Crude Drugs Res. 21, 73-77.

Waghorn G C, John A, Jones WT, Shelton JD. 1987. Nutritive value of Lotus corniculatus L. containing low and medium concentrations of condensed tannins for sheep. Proceed. N.Z. Soc. Animal Prod. 47, 25-30.

Waghorn G C, Shelton ID, McNabb WC. 1994. The effect of condensed tannin in Lotus pedunculatus on nutritive value for sheep 2. N itrogenous aspects. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 123, 109–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600067836

Waghorn G C, Shelton ID. 1992. The nutritive value of lotus for sheep. Proceed. N.Z. Animal Prod. 52, 89-92.

Wang Y, Douglas G B, Waghorn G C, Barry TN, Foote AG, Purchas R W. 1996. Effect of condensed tannins upon the performance of lambs grazing Lotus corniculatus and lucerne (Medicago sativa). J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 126, 87–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600088833

Wiryavan KG, Dingle JG. 1999. R ecent research on improving the quality of grain legumes for chicken growling. Animal Feed Sci. Technol. 76, 185-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(98)00218-1




Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es