Grasas y Aceites, Vol 62, No 4 (2011)

Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.032911

Mohamed F. Ramadan
Agricultural Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University - Chair of Engineer Abdullah Ahmad Baqshan for Bee Research, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Egypt

R. Zayed
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Egypt

M. Abozid
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Menofia University, Egypt

M. M. S. Asker
Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research Center, Egypt

Abstract


Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO) and pumpkin kernel oil (PO) on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control). The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight), while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight). The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO) showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartateaminotransferase (AST) activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords


Apricot seed oil; Cholesterol; Fatty acids; HDL-cholesterol; Hypercholesterolemia; LDL-cholesterol; Polyunsaturated; Pumpkin seed oil

Full Text:


PDF

References


Al-Khalifa AS. 1996. Physicochemical characteristics, fatty acids composition and lipoxygenase activity of crude pumpkin and melon seed oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 964 – 966. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf950519s

Alvarez-Chavez LM, Valdivia-Lopez M L, Aburto-Juarez ML, Tecantea A. 2008. Chemical characterization of the lipid fraction of Mexican Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.). Inter. J. Food Prop. 11, 687-697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942910701622656

Arens M, Schulte E, Weber K. 1994. Fettsäuremethylester, Umesterung mit Trimethylsulfoniumhydroxid (Schnellverfahren). Fat Sci. Technol. 96, 67-68.

Artho G, Grob K, Marianai C. 1993. On-line LC-GC for the analysis of the minor components in edible oils and fats- the direct method involving silylation. Fat Sci. Technol. 95, 176-180.

Binkoski AE, Kris-Etherton PM, Wilson TA, Mountain M L, Nicolosi RJ. 2005. Balance of unsaturated fatty acids is important to a cholesterol-lowering diet: Comparison of mid-oleic sunflower oil and olive oil on cardiovascular disease risk factors. J. Amer. Diet Assoc. 105,1080-1086. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2005.04.009 PMid:15983524

Commonwealth of Australia: Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code Amendment No. 89 2006. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au

Cortese C, Levy Y, Janus ED. 1983. Modes of action of lipid lowering diets in mans: studies of apolipoprotein B kinetics in relation to fat consumption and dietary fatty acids composition. Eur. J. Clin. Invest.13, 79-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.1983.tb00068.x PMid:6409627

Da Luz PL, Favarato D, Faria-Neto JR, Lemos P, Chagas AC. 2008. High ratio of triglycerides to HDLcholesterol predicts extensive coronary disease. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 63, 427-432.

Danielle AK, Brouns F, Hornstra G, Mensink RP. 2002. Effects on the human serum lipoprotein profile of β-glucan, soy protein and isoflavones, plant sterols and stanols, garlic and tocotrienols. J. Nutr.132, 2494-2505. PMid:12221200

De Jong A, Plat J, Mensink RP. 2003. Metabolic effect of plant sterols and stanols. J. Nut. Biochem. 14, 362-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(03)00002-0

De-Blas OJ, Del-Valle GA. 1996. Determination of sterols by capillary column gas chromatography. Differentiation among different types of olive oil: virgin, refined and solvent extracted. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 73, 1685-1689. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02517973

Demacker AG, Hijmans BG, Brenninkmeijer AP, Jansen J S, van’t Laar A. 1984. Five methods for determining low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared. Clinic Chem. 30,1797-1800. PMid:6593139

Demontyl I, Ras RT, Knaap van der HC, Duchateau GS, Meijer L, Zock PL, Geleijnse JM, and Trautwein EA. 2009. Continuous dose-response relationship of the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of phytosterol intake. J. Nutr. 139, 271-284. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.108.095125 PMid:19091798

Doumas BT, Watson WA, Biggs HG. 1971. Albumin standards and measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clin. Chim. Acta 31, 87-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(71)90365-2

Eisenberg S. 1984. High density lipoprotein metabolism. J. Lipid Res. 25,1017-1023. PMid:6392459

El-Adawy TA, Taha KM. 2001. Characteristics and composition of different seed oils and flours. Food Chem. 74, 47-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00337-X

European Food Safety Authority. 2008. Consumption of food and beverages with added plant sterols in the European Union. The Efsa Journal 133, 1-21.

Fossati P, Prencipe L. 1982. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clinic Chem. 28, 2077–2080. PMid:6812986

Gey KF, Puska P, Jordan P, Moser UK. 1991. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology. Am. J. Clinic Nutr. 53, 3245-3265.

Ghasi S, Nwobodo E, Ofili JO. 2000. Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high-fat diet fed wistar rats. J. Ethnopharmacology 69, 21-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00106-3

Grob K, Laufranchi M, Mariani C. 1990. Evaluation of olive oils through the fatty alcohols, the sterols and their esters by coupled LC-GC. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67, 626-634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02540412

Grundy SM. 1986. Comparison of monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates for lowering plasma cholesterol. New Eng. J. Med. 314, 745-749 http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198603203141204 PMid:3951504

Grundy SM. 1989. Monounsaturated fatty acids, plasma cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45,1168-75.

Harrison D, Kathy KG, Hornig B, Drexler H. 2003. Role of oxidative stress in atherosclerosis. Amer. J. Card. 91, 7A–11A. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(02)03144-2

Hayashi K, Hirata Y, Kurushima H, Saeki M. 1993. Effect of dietary hydrogenated corn oil (trans-octadecenoate rich oil) on plasma and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in the hamster. Atherosclerosis 99, 97-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(93)90055-Y

Hermier D, Dillon J. 1992. Characterization of dietary induced hypercholesterolemia in the chicken. Biochem Brophys Acta 1124, 178-184.

Howard BV, Kritchevsky D. 1997. Phytochemical and cardiovascular disease. A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation 95, 2591-2593. PMid:9184593

Jump JO, Clarke SD. 1999. Regulation of gene expression by dietary fat. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 19, 63-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.19.1.63 PMid:10448517

Kallio H, Y ang B, Peippo P, Tahvonen R, Pan R. 2002. Triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in berries and seeds of two subspecies (ssp. sinensis and mongolica) of Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 3004-3009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf011556o PMid:11982433

Kamal-Eldin A, Andersson R. 1997. A multivariate study of the correlation between tocopherol content and fatty acid composition in vegetable oils. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 74, 375-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-997-0093-1

Katan M B, Grundy SM, Jones P, Law M, Miettinen T, Paoletti RS. 2003. Workshop Participants: Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management of blood cholesterol levels. Mayo Clinic Proc. 78, 965-978. http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/78.8.965 PMid:12911045

Keys A, Menotti A, Karvonen MJ, Aravanis C, Blackburn H. 1986. The diet and 15-year death rate in the Seven Countries Study. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 124, 903-907. PMid:3776973

Kurushimaa H, Hayashi K, Toyota Y, Kambeb M, Kajiyama G. 1995. Comparison of hypocholesterolemic effects induced by dietary linoleic acid and oleic acid in hamsters. Atherosclerosis 114, 213-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(94)05486-3

Landriera J, Gourantona E, Reboula E, Cardinaulta N, El Yazidia C. 2010. Vitamin E decreases endogenous cholesterol synthesis and apo-AI-mediated cholesterol secretion in Caco-2 cells. J. Nutr. Biochem. 21, 1207-1213 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.008 PMid:20149624

Laraki L, Pelletier X, Debry G. 1991. Effect of dietary cholesterol and phytosterol overload on wistar rat plasma lipids. Ann. Nut. Met. 35, 221-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000177649 PMid:1897902

Law MR. 1999. Lowering heart disease risk with cholesterol reduction: evidence from observational studies and clinical trials. Eur. Heart J. Suppl. 1, S3-S8.

Lopez MF, Stone S, Ellis S, Collwell JA. 1977. Cholesterol determination in high density lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Clin. Chem. 23, 882-886. PMid:192488

Mensink RP, Katan MB. 1992. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arterioscler. Thromb. 12, 911-919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.12.8.911

Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB. 2003. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Amer. J. Clinic Nutr. 77, 1146-1155. PMid:12716665

Meydani M. 2004. Vitamin E modulation of cardiovascular disease. Ann. NY Acad. Sci .1031, 271-279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1331.027 PMid:15753153

Muldoon MF, Manuck SB, Mendelsohn AB, Kaplan JR, Belle SH. 2001. Cholesterol reduction and non-illness mortality: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. BMJ 322, 11-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7277.11 PMid:11141142    PMCid:26598

Nelson JS. 1980. Pathology of vitamin E deficiency. In Vitamin E: A comprehensive treatise, Machlin LJ (ed), Marcel Dekker, NY; 397-428.

Ntanios F. 2001. Plant sterol-ester-enriched spreads as an example of a new functional food. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 103, 102-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1438-9312(200102)103:2<102::AID-EJLT102>3.0.CO;2-A

Oboh HA, Olumese FE. 2010. Effects of Low Carbohydrate High Fat Nigerian-Like Diet on Biochemical Indices in Rabbits. Pakistan J. Nutr. 3, 245-249.

Ostlund RE, Racette SB, Stenson WF. 2003. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption by phytosterol-replete wheat germ compared with phytosterol-depleted wheat germ. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 77, 1385-1589. PMid:12791614

Othani H, Hayashi K, Hirata Y, Dojo S. 1990. Effects of dietary cholesterol and fatty acids on plasma cholesterol level and hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. J. Lipid Res. 31, 1413-1418. PMid:2280182

Pearce BC, Parker RA, Deason ME, Qureshi AA, Wright JJ. 1992. Hypocholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols. J. Med. Chem. 35, 3595-3606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm00098a002 PMid:1433170

Piironen V, Toivo J, Lampi A.-M. 2000. Natural sources of dietary plant sterols. J. Food Comp. Anal. 13, 619-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jfca.2000.0898

Poli A, Marangoni F, Paoletti R, Mannarino E. 2008. Nonpharmacological control of plasma cholesterol levels. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 18, S1-S16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2007.10.004 PMid:18258418

Punithavathi VR, Prince SM. 2009. Combined effects of quercetin and α-tocopherol on lipids and glycoprotein components in isoproterenol induced myocardial in fracted Wistar rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions 181, 322–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2009.07.002 PMid:19595682

Qureshi AA, Pearce BC, Nor RM, Gapor A, Peterson DM, Elson CE. 1996. Dietary a-tocopherol attenuates the impact of g-tocotrienol on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in chickens. J. Nutr. 126, 389–394. PMid:8632210

Qureshi AA, Qureshi N, Hasler-Rapacz JO, Weber FE. 1991a. Dietary tocotrienols reduce concentrations of plasma cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, thromboxane B2, and platelet factor 4 in pigs with inherited hyperlipidemias. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 53,1042S-1046S. PMid:2012015

Qureshi AA, Qureshi N, Wright JJ, Shen Z. 1991b. Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee). Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 53,1021S-1026S. PMid:2012010

Ramadan MF, Kinni SG, Seshagiri M, Mörsel J-T. 2010. Fat-soluble bioactives, fatty acid profile and radical scavenging activity of Semecarpus anacardium seed oil. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 87, 885-894. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1567-0

Ramadan MF, Moersel J- T., 2002. Direct isocratic normal phase assay of fat-soluble vitamins and b-carotene in oilseeds. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 214, 521-527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-002-0511-4

Ramadan MF, Mörsel J-T. 2003. Recovered lipids from prickly pear [(Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill)] peel: a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, natural antioxidant vitamins and sterols. Food Chem. 83, 447-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00128-6

Ramadan MF, Zayed R, El-Shamy H. 2007. Screening of bioactive lipids and radical scavenging potential of some solanaceae plants. Food Chem. 103, 885-890. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.040

Reaven P, Parthasarathy S, Grasse BJ, Miller E, Steinberg D, Witztum JL. 1993. Effects of oleate-rich and linoleaterich diets on the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidative modification in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. J. Clinic Invest. 91, 668-676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI116247 PMid:8432867    PMCid:288008

Retiman S, Frankel S. 1957. Colorimetric determination of GOT and GPT. Am. J. Clinic Path. 28, 56-59. PMid:13458125

Richmond W. 1973. Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clinic Chem. 19, 1350-1356. PMid:4757363

Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Willett WC. 1993. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. New Engl. J. Med. 328, 1450-1456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199305203282004 PMid:8479464

Schwartz H, Ollilainen V, Piironen V, Lampi A-M. 2008. Tocopherol, tocotrienol and plant sterol contents of vegetable oils and industrial fats. J. Food Comp. Anal. 21, 152-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2007.07.012

Shore VG, Krauss RM, Butterfield G, Dashaies Y, Lindgern FT. 1981. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated: saturated fat ratio on human serum lipoproteins. Arteriosclerosis 1, 386a Sizova NV, Andreeva NY. 2007. Estimation of vitamin E in plant oils by microcalorimetry. Pharm. Chem. J. 41, 337-340.

Sokol RJ. 1996. Vitamin E. In Present knowledge in Nutrition, Ziegler EE, Filer LJ (eds): ILSI Press, Washington DC, pp. 130-16.

Stevenson DG, Eller FJ, Wang L, Jane J-L, Wang T, George E, Inglett GE. 2007. Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 4005-4013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0706979 PMid:17439238

Tan DT, Khor HT, Low WH, Ali A, Gapor A. 1991. Effect of a palm-oil-vitamin E concentrate on the serum and lipoprotein lipids in humans. Amer. J. Clinic Nutr. 53,1027S-1030S. PMid:2012011

Theriault A, Wang Q, Gapor A, Adeli K. 1999. Effects of γ-tocotrienol on apoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells. Arterioscler. Thromb Vas. Biol. 19, 704-712. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.19.3.704 PMid:10073977

Tietz NW. 1976. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 299. Turner JD, Le NA, Brown WV. 1981. Effect of changing dietary fat saturation on low-density lipoprotein metabolism in man. Amer. J. Physiol. 241, E57.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2000. Code of Federal Regulation No. 83- 000. Food Labeling: Plant Sterol / Stanol Esters and Coronary Heart Disease.

Vanstone CA, Raeini SM, Parsons WE, Jones PJ. 2002. Unesterified plant sterols and stanols lower LDL cholesterol concentration equivalently in hypercholesterolemic persons. Ann. J. Clin. Nutr. 76, 1272-1278.

Yang B, Karlsson RM, Oksman PH, Kallio HP. 2001. Phytosterols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries: Identification and effects of different origins and harvesting times. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 5620-5629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf010813m PMid:11714369




Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es