Grasas y Aceites, Vol 63, No 3 (2012)

Microstructure of industrially produced reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese as influenced by the homogenization of cream


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.106611

A. D. Karaman
Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, Aydın, Turkey

M. Benli
Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Ankara, Turkey

A. S. Akalin
Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Dairy Technology, Izmir, Turkey

Abstract


The microstructure and fat globule distribution of reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese were evaluated. Reduced and low fat cheeses were manufactured from 1.5% and 0.75% fat milk respectively which were standardized unhomogenized and homogenized cream in a dairy plant. Homogenized and non-homogenized creams and cheese whey were analyzed for fat globule distribution and cheese samples were also analyzed for microstructure characteristics. According to the results, the homogenization of cream decreased the size of fat globules; and showed that a large number of fat particles were dispersed in the in matrix and improved the lubrication of cheese microstructure. According to the micrographs for the fat, which was not removed, they exhibited a more extended matrix with a few small fat globules compared to the defatted micrographs. Homogenization of cream produces small fat globules and unclustured fat globules were found in the resulting whey. These results are important for dairy processors for using cream homogenization as a processing tool at the industrial level.

Keywords


Fat reduction; Homogenized cream; Microstructure; White cheese

Full Text:


PDF

References


Akalın SA, Karaman, DA. 2010. Influence of packaging conditions on the textural and sensory characteristics, microstructure and color of industrially produced Turkish white cheese during ripening. J. Texture Studies, 41, 549-562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2010.00241.x

Akın N, Aydemir S, Kocak C, Yıldız MA. 2003. Changes of free fatty acid contents and sensory properties of white pickled cheese during ripening. Food Chem. 80, 77-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00242-X

Anonymous, 1994. TS 1018. Çi. Süt Standardı. Türk Standartları Enstitu.su. Ankara, Turkey.

Dinkci N, Kesenkas H, Seckin AK, Kınık O, Gonc S. 2011. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of Kashar cheese. Grasas Aceites 62, 275-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.091810

Emmons DB, Kalab M, Larmond E. 1980. Milk gel structure. X. Texture and Microstructure in Cheddar cheese made from whole milk and from homogenized low-fat milk. J. Texture Studies, 11, 15-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.1980.tb00305.x

Hayat MA. 1981. Principles and techniques of electron microscopy. Vol. 1. Edward Arlond Lt., London, 522P.

Karaman DA. 2007. Effect of cream homogenization on the manufacture and characteristics of the reduced fat white cheese. PhD Thesis in Dairy Technology, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey, 222 pages.

Karami M, Ehsani MR, Mousavi SM, Rezaei K, Safari M. 2009. Changes in the rheological properties of Iranian UFfeta cheese during ripening. Food Chem. 112, 539-544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.003

Karami M, Ehsani MR, Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi M, Rezaei K, Safari M. 2008. Microstructural changes in fat during the ripening of Iranian ultrafiltered Feta cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 11, 4147-4154. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1249 PMid :18946118

Khosrowshahi A, Madadlou A, Mousavi EM, Emam-Djomeh Z. 2006. Monitoring the chemical and textural changes during ripening of Iranian white cheese made with different concentrations of starter. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 3318-3325. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72368-2

Kocabas, Z, Odabası, S, Atamer, M. 1998. Mikrobiyolojik verilerin istatistiksel analizinde uygun transformasyon yönteminin seçimi. Gıda. 23, 1, 11-17.

Lobato-Calleros C, Reyes-Hernandez J, Beristain CI, Homelas-Uribe Y, Sanchez-Garcia JE, Vernon-Carter EJ. 2007. Microstructure and texture of white fresh cheese made with canola oil and whey protein concentrate in partial or total replacement of milk fat. Food Research Int. 40, 529-553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2006.10.011

Madadlou A, Mousavi ME, Khosrowshahi Asl A, Emam- Djome Z., Zargaran M. 2007. Effect of cream homogenization on textural characteristics of low-fat Iranian white cheese. Int. Dairy J. 17, 547-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2006.07.006

Madadlou A, Khosrowshahi A, Mousavi AM, Djome ZE. 2006. Microstructure and rheological properties of Iranian white cheese coagulated at various temperatures. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 2359-2364. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72308-6

Madadlou A, Khosrwoshahi A, Mousavi ME. 2005. Rheology, microstructure and functionality of low-fat Iranian White cheese made with different concentrations of rennet. J. Dairy Sci. 88, 3052-3062. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72986-6

Mcmahon DJ, Motawee MM, Mcmanus WR. 2009. Influence of brine concentration and temperature on composition, microstructure, and yield of feta cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 4169-4179. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2183 PMid :19700677

Metzger LE, Mistry VV. 1995. A new approach using homogenization of cream in the manufacture of reduced fat cheddar cheese. 2. Microstructure, fat globule distribution, and free oil. J. Dairy Sci. 78, 1883-1895. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76813-8

Metzger LE, Mistry VV. 1994. A new approach using homogenization of cream in the manufacture of reduced fat cheddar cheese. 1. Manufacture, Composition and Yield. J. Dairy Sci. 77, 3506-3515. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77292-1

Nair MG, Mistry VV, Oommen BS. 2000. Yield and functionality of cheddar cheese as influenced by homogenization of cream. Int. Dairy J. 10, 647-657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(00)00090-X

Noronha N, Duggan E, Ziegler GR, Stapleton JJ, O’riordan ED, O’sullivan M. 2008. Comparison of microscopy techniques for the examination of the microstructure of starch-containing imitation cheeses. Food Research Int. 41, 472-479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.02.008

Ong L, Dagastine RR, Kentish SE, Gras, SL. 2011. Microstructure of milk gel and cheese curd observed using cryo scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 44, 1291-1302.

Ozer BH, Robinson RK, Gradison SA. 2003. Textural and Microstructural Properties of Urfa Cheese (A Traditional White Brined Turkish Cheese). Int. J. Dairy Tech. 56, 171-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-0307.2003.00100.x

Pereira CI, Gomes AMP, Malcata FX. 2009. Microstructure of cheese: Processing, technological and microbiological considerations. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 20, 213-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2009.02.006 PMid :21299575

Poduval VS, Mistry VV. 1999. Manufacture of reduced fat mozzarella cheese using ultrafiltered sweet buttermilk and homogenized cream. J. Dairy Sci. 82, 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75202-1

Rudan MA, Barbano DM, Guo RM, Kindstebt PSK. 1998. Effect of modification of fat particle size by homogenization composition, proteolyses, functionality and ppearance of reduced fat mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 81, 2065-2076. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75781-9

Temelli S, Anar S, Sen C., Akyuva P. 2006. Determination of microbiological contamination sources during Turkish white cheese production. Food Control, 17, 856-861. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.05.012




Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es