Grasas y Aceites, Vol 63, No 3 (2012)

Studies on the hypolipidemic effects of Coconut oil when blended with Tiger nut oil and fed to albino rats


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.011412

A. M. El-Anany
Special Food & Nutrition Department, Food Technology Research Institute; Agricultural Research Center, Egypt

R. F. M. Ali
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

Abstract


Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO) with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO) on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch), and triglycerides (TG), were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI) was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.

Keywords


Albino rats; Blood lipid; Coconut; Fatty acids; Hypercholesterolemia; Oil blends; Tiger nut

Full Text:


PDF

References


Acton S, Rigotti A, Landschulz KT, Xu S, Hobbs HH, Krieger M. 1996. Identification of scavenger receptor SR-BI as a high density lipoprotein receptor. Sci. 271, 518-520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.271.5248.518 PMid :8560269

American Heart Association scientific cholesterol levels. February. 2004. Internet: http://www.americanheart.org accessed.

Ahmed I, Naeem M, Abdul Shakoor Zaheer A, Hafiz M. 2010. Investigation of Anti-diabetic and Hypocholesterolemic Potential of PsylliumHusk Fiber (Plantago psyllium) in Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Albino Rats. International J. Bio. Life Sci. 6,185-189.

Anderson JW, Smith BM, Gustafon N. 1994. Health benefits and practical aspects of high fibre diets. Am. J. Clinic. Nutr. 59, 1242s-1247s. PMid :8172129

AOAC1990 . Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed., vol. 2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington.

A.O.A.C. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 17th ed, Published by A.O.A.C., Washington, DC.

Assmann G. 1979. Cholesterol determination in high densit lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Internist. 20, 559-604. PMid :232093

Awan JA. 1993. Elements of food and nutrition. Uni-Tech Communication, Faisalabad, Pakistan, pp. 42-44.

Belewu MA, Belewu KY. 2007. Comparative physicochemical evaluation of tiger-nut, soybean and coconut milk sources. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 9, 785-787.

Botham KM, Boyd GS. 1983.The Effect of Dietary Fat on Bile Salt Synthesis in Rat Liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 752, 307-314 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-2760(83)90128-5

Che Man YB, Marina AM. 2006. Medium chain triacylglycerol. In F. Shaidi (ed.), Neutraceutical and specialty lipids and their co-products (pg 27-56). Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis Group.

Dietschy JM. 1998. Dietary fatty acids and the regulation of plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. J. Nutr. 128, 444S-448S. PMid :9478045

Dobiasova M, Frohlich J. 2001. The plasma parameter log (TG/HDL-C) as an atherogenic index: correlation with lipoprotein particle size and esterification rate in apoB-lipoprotein-depleted plasma (FERHDL). Clin. Biochem. 34, 583-588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-9120(01)00263-6

Eteshola E, Oraedu ACI. 1996. Fatty acid composition of tigernut tubers (Cyperus esculentus L.), baobab seeds (Adasonia digitata L.) and their mixture. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.73, 255-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02523905

Escott-Stump S, Mahan LK. 2004.Krause’s Food, Nutrition, & Diet Therapy (11th ed.). 11th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.

Fielding CJ. 1984. The origin and properties of free cholesterol potential gradients in plasma, and their relation to atherogenesis. J. Lipid Res. 25, 1624-1628. PMid :6530600

Fife B. 2005.Coconut Cures. Piccadilly Books, Ltd. pp. 184-185. ISBN 978-0-941599-60-3.

Fossati P, Prencipe L. 1982. The determination of triglyceride using enzymatic methods. Clin. Chem. 28, 2077-2080. PMid :6812986

Goldberg DI, Beltz WF, Pittman RC. 1991. Evaluation of pathways for the cellular uptake of high density lipoprotein cholesterol esters in rabbits. J. Clin. Invest. 87, 331-346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI114991 PMid :1985105    PMCid:295057

Gómez KA, Gómez AA. 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural 446 research. Wiley, New York. Grundy SM. 1989. Monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol metabolism: implications for dietary recommendations. J. Nutr. 119, 529-533.

Hayashi K, Hirata Y, Kurushima H, Saeki M. 1993. Effect of dietary hydrogenated corn oil (trans-octadecenoate rich oil) on plasma and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in the hamster. Atherosclerosis. 99, 97-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(93)90055-Y

Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Gordon T. 1979.Cholesterol in the prediction ofatherosclerotic disease. New perspectives based on the Framingham study. Ann. Intern. Med. 90, 85-91. PMid :217290

Kannel WB, Wilson PW. 1992. Efficacy of lipid profiles in prediction of coronary disease. Am. Heart J. 124, 768. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703(92)90288-7

Kendrick J, Higgins J. 1999. Dietary fish oils inhibit early events in the assembly of very low density lipoproteins and target apoB for degradation within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of hamster hepatocytes. J. Lipid Res. 40, 504-514. PMid :10064739

Keys A, Anderson JT, Grande F. 1965. Serum cholesterol responses to changes in the diet. IV. Particular saturated fatty acids in the diet. Metabolism. 14, 776-787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(65)90004-1

Kordyias JM. 1990. Processing and preservation tropical and subtropical food. J. Agric. Food Technol. 12, 28-40.

Kozarsky KF, Donahee MH, Rigotti A, Iqbal SN, Edelman ER, Krieger M. 1997. Overexpression of the HDL receptor SR-BI alters plasma HDL and bile cholesterol levels. Nature. 387, 414-417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/387414a0 PMid :9163428

Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B et al. 2001. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. J. Nutr. 131, 132-146. PMid :11208950

Krieger M. 1998. The “best” of cholesterols, the “worst” of cholesterols: a tale of two receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95, 4077-4080. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.8.4077

Kris-Etherton PMYS. 1997.Individual fatty acid effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Human studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65, 1628S-44S. PMid :9129503

Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, Hargrove RL, Moriarty K, Fishell V, Etherton TD. 1999. Highmonounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70, 1009-1015. PMid :10584045

Kurushimaa H, Hayashi K, Toyota Y, Kambeb M, Kajiyama G. 1995. Comparison of hypocholesterolemic effects induced by dietary linoleic acid and oleic acid in hamsters. Atherosclerosis. 114, 213-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(94)05486-3

Levy AL. 1981. A fully enzymatic colourimetric determination of LDL-cholesterol in the serum. Clin. Chem. 27, 653-662. PMid :7226489

Mensink RP, Katan MB. 1992. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arterioscler. Thromb. 12, 911-919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.12.8.911

Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB. 2003. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: A meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77, 1146-55. PMid :12716665

Meydani M. 2004. Vitamin E modulation of cardiovascular disease. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1031, 271-279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1331.027 PMid :15753153

Miller M. 2000. Current perspectives on the management of hypertriglyceridaemia. Am. Heart J. 140, 232-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mhj.2000.108001 PMid :10925336

Oladele AK, Aina JO. 2007. Chemical composition and functional properties of flour from two varieties of tigernut. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 6, 2473-2476.

Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC. 2005. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N. Engl. J. Med. 352, 1138-1145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsr043743 PMid :15784668

Osagie AU, Eka SA. 1998. Lipid from plant source, structure and distribution. Proc. 1st Agric Conf. on Biochem. Lipids. 103, 21-26.

Ponsin G, Pulcini T, Sparrow JT, Gotto AM, Pownall HJ. 1993. High density lipoprotein interconversions in rat and man as assessed with a novel nontransferable apolipopeptide. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 3114-3119. PMid :8428990

Reeves PG, Nielsen FH, Fahey GC Jr. 1993. AIN-93 Purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J. Nutr. 123, 1939-1951. PMid :8229312

Reiser R, Probstfield JL, Silvers A, Scott LWShorney M L, Wood RD, O’Brien BC, Gotto AM, Insull W. 1985. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein response of humans to beef fat, coconut oil and safflower oil. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42, 190-197. PMid :4025191

Roeschlau P, Bernt E, Gruber WL. 1974. Kinetics of the cholesterol – sulfuric acid reaction. A fast kientic method for serum cholesterol. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 12, 403-408.

Shore VG, Krauss RM, Butterfield G, Dashaies Y, Lindgern, FT. 1981. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated: saturated fat ratio on human serum lipoproteins. Arteriosclerosis. 1, 386a.

Sola R, Baudet MF, Motta C, Maille M, Jacotot B. 1990. Le régime riche en acides gras monoinsaturés (huile d’olive) augmente la fluiditédes lipoprotéines humaines de haute densité.Annales de Nutrition et de Metabolisme 34, 53-68.

Spector AA, Kaduce TL Dane RW. 1980. Effect of dietary fat saturation on acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase activity of rat liver microsomes. J. Lipid Res. 21, 169-179. PMid :6103016

Tall AR. 1993. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein. J. Lipid Res. 34, 1255-1274. PMid :8409761

Temple VJ, Ojobe TO, Kapu NM. 1990. Chemical analysis of tigernut (Cyperus esculenta). J. Sci. Food Agric. 50, 262-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740500214

Tsimikas S, Philis-Tsimikas A, Alexopoulos S, Sigari F, Lee C, Reaven PD. 1999. LDL isolated from Greek subjects on a typical diet or from American subjects on an oleate-supplemented diet induces less monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion when exposed to oxidative stress. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Bio. l19, 122-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.19.1.122 PMid :9888874

Turner, JD, Le NA, Brown WV. 1981. Effect of changing dietary fat saturation on low-density lipoprotein metabolism in man. Amer. J. Physiol. 241, E57. PMid :7246768

Umene SC, Enebeli JN. 1997. Malt caramel from the nuts of Cyperus esculentus. J. Biol. Resour. Technol. 8, 215-216.

US Food and Drug Administration. 2004. Atherosclerosis. U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Heart Health Online. 18, 2007, in: http://www.fda.gov/hearthealth/conditions/atherosclerosis.html.

Varban ML, Rinninger F, Wang N, Fairchild-Huntress V, Dunmore JH, Fang Q, Gosselin ML, Dixon KL, Deeds JD, Acton SL, Tall AR, Huszar D. 1998. Targeted mutation reveals a central role for SR-BI in hepatic selective uptake of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95, 4619- 4624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.8.4619

Yu S, Derr J, Etherton TD, Kris-Etherton PM.1995. Plasma cholesterol-predictive equations demonstrate that stearic acid is neutral and monounsaturated fatty acids are hypocholesterolemic. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61, 1129-1139. PMid :7733039

Zhang HY, Hanna MA, Ali Y, Nan L. 1996. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) tuber oil as a fuel. Ind. Crop. Prod.5, 177-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0926-6690(96)89446-5




Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es