Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 1 (2013)

Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia) and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica)


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.070312

M. H. Givianrad
Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

M. Saber-Tehrani
Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

S. A. Jafari Mohammadi
Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Abstract


The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83%) in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27%) in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.

Keywords


Cold pressed oil; Fatty acid; Sterol; Tocopherol; Total phenol; Triacylglycerol; Wild almond oil; Wild pistachio oil

Full Text:


PDF

References


Abidi SL. 2001. Chromatographic Analysis of Plant Sterols in Foods and Vegetable Oils. J. Chromatogr. A 935, 173-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)00946-3

Abaza L, Msallem M, Daoud D, Zarrouk M. 2002. Characterization of the oils from seven Tunisian olive tree varieties. Oléagineux Corps Gras Lipides 9, 174-179.

Aluyor EO, Ozigagu CE, Oboh OI, Aluyor P. 2009. Chromatographic Analysis of Vegetable Oils. Sci. Res. Essay 4, 191-197.

Álvarez-Ortí M, Quintanilla C, Sena E, Alvarruiz A, Pardo JE. 2012. The effects of a pressure extraction system on the quality parameters of different virgin pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Larnaka) oils. Grasas Aceites 63, 260-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.117511

Arena E, Campisi S, Fallico B, Maccarone E. 2007. Distribution of Fatty Acids and Phytosterols as a Criterion to Discriminate Geographic Origin of Pistachio Seeds. Food Chem. 104, 403-408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.029

Bellomo MG, Fallico B. 2007. Anthocyanins, chlorophylls and xanthophylls in pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera) of different geographic origin. J. Food Compos. Anal. 20, 352-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.04.002

Benhassaini H, Bendahmane M, Benchalgo N. 2007. The Chemical Composition of Fruits of Pistacia Atlantica DESF. SUBSP. Atlantica From Algeria. Chem. Nat. Compd. 43, 121-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10600-007-0059-4

Browicz K, Zohary D. 1996. The Genus Amygdalus L. (Rosaceae) Species Relationships, Distribution and Evolution under Domestication. Genet. Resour. Crop Ev. 43, 229-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00123275

Burton GW.1994. Vitamin E. Molecular and Biological Function. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 53, 251-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PNS19940030 PMid:7972139

Burton GW, Traber MG. 1990. Vitamin E: Antioxidant Activity, Biokinetics, and Bioavailability. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 10, 357-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.10.070190.002041 PMid:2200468

Farhoosh R, Tavakoli J. 2008. Physicochemical Properties of Kernel Oil from Amygdalus Scoparia Growing Wild in Iran. J. Food Lipids 15, 433-443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2008.00131.x

Ferreira ICFR, Barros L, Soares ME, Bastos ML, Pereira JA. 2007. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Contents of Olea Europaea L. Leaves Sprayed with Different Copper Formulations. Food Chem. 103, 188-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.006

Foster R, Williamson CS, Lunn J. 2009. Culinary Oils and Their health effects. British Nutrition Foundation 34, 4-47.

Frankel EN. 1991. Recent Advances in Lipid Oxidation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 154, 495-511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740540402

Giuffrida D, Salvo F, Salvo A, La Pera L, Dugo G. 2007. Pigments Composition in Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oils from Various Sicilian Olive Varieties. Food Chem. 101, 833–837. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.030

Givianrad MH, Saffarpour S, Beheshti P. 2011. Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Compositions of Capparis spinosa Seed Oil. Chem. Nat. Compd. 47, 798-799. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10600-011-0063-6

Gliszczynska-Swigo A, Sikorska E. 2004. Simple Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Tocopherols in Edible Plant Oils. J. Chromatogr. A. 2, 195-198.

Gorttapeh AH, Hassani MH, Ranji H. 2006. Recognition and Ecological Investigation of Almond Species (Amygdalus spp.) in West Azarbaijan Province. Acta Hortic. 726, 253-256.

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ. 1999. Nut Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 3, 204-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11883-999-0033-7

Jahaniaval F, Kakuda Y, Marcone MF. 2000. Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Compositions of Seed Oils of Five Amaranthus Accessions and Their Comparison to Other Oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77, 847-852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-000-0135-0

Karimi HR, Zamani Z, Ebadi A, Fatahi MR. 2009. Morphological Diversity of Pistacia Species in Iran. Genet. Resour. Crop Ev. 56, 561-571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-008-9386-y

Klippell KF. 1997. A multicentrique, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Brit. J. Urol. 80, 427-432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1464-410X.1997.t01-1-00362.x

Kocyigit A, Koylu AA, Keles H. 2006. Effects of pistachio nuts consumption on plasma lipid profile and oxydative status in healthy volunteers. Nutrit. Metab. Cardiovas. 16, 202-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2005.08.004 PMid:16580587

Kornsteiner M, Wagner KH, Elmadfa I. 2006. Tocopherols and Total Phenolics in 10 Different Nut Types. Food Chem. 98, 381-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.033

Kritchevsky D, Shirley CC, 2005. Phytosterols—health benefits and potential concerns: a review. Nutrit. Res. 25, 413–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2005.02.003

López Alonso D, García Maroto F. 2000. Plants as chemical factories for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biotechnol. Adv. 18, 481-497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0734-9750(00)00048-3

Maestro-Durán R, Borja-Padilla R. 1993. Actividad antioxidante de esteróles y ácidos orgánicos naturals. Grasas Aceites 44, 208-212 http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.1993.v44.i3.1096

Maguire LS, O'Sullivan SM, Galvin K, O'Connor TP, O'Brien NM. 2004. Fatty Acid Profile, Tocopherol, Squalene and Phytosterol Content of Walnuts, Almonds, Peanuts, Hazelnuts and the Macadamia Nut. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 55, 171-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480410001725175 PMid:15223592

Miraliakbari H, Shahidi F. 2008. Lipid Class Compositions, Tocopherols and Sterols of Tree Nut Oils Extracted with Different Solvents. J. Food Lipids 15, 81-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2007.00104.x

Moayedi A, Rezaei K, Moini S, Keshavarz B. 2011. Chemical Compositions of Oils from Several Wild Almond Species. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88, 503-508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1701-z

Nieman DC. 1994. Exercise, infection and immunity. Inter. J. Sports Med. 15, 131-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1021128 PMid:7883395

Noor Lida HMD, Sundram K, Siew WL, Aminah A, Mamot S. 2002. TAG Composition and Solid Fat Content of Palm Oil, Sunflower Oil, and Palm Kernel Olein Blends Before and After Chemical Interesterification. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 79, 1137-1114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0617-0

Ozcan MM, Unver A, Erkan E, Arslan D. 2011. Characteristics of Some Almond Kernel and Oils. Sci. Hortic. 127, 330-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.10.027

Pegel KH. 1997. The importance of sitosterol and sitosterolin in human and animal nutrition. S. Afr. J. SCI. 93,263-268

Satil F, Azcan N, Baser KHC. 2003. Fatty acid composition of pistachio nuts in Turkey. Chem. Nat. Compd. 39, 322-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:CONC.0000003408.63300.b5

Siger A, Nogala-Kalucka M, Lampart-Szczapa E. 2008. The Content and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds in Cold-Pressed Plant Oils. J. Food Lipids, 15, 137-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2007.00107.x

Siquet C, Paiva-Martins F, Lima JLFC, Reis S, Borges F. 2006. Antioxidant Profile of Dihydroxy and Trihydroxyphenolic Acids a Structure-Activity Relationship Study. Free Radical Res. 40, 433-442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715760500540442 PMid:16517509

Tsantili E, Takidelli C, Christopoulos MV, Lambrineab E, Rouskasc D, Roussosa PA. 2010. Physical, Compositional and Sensory Differences in Nuts Among Pistachio (Pistachia Vera L.) Varieties. Sci. Hortic. 125, 562-568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.04.039

Uquiche E, Jeréz M, Ortíz J. 2008. Effect of Pretreatment with Microwaves on Mechanical Extraction Yield and Quality of Vegetable Oil from Chilean Hazelnuts. Food sci. Emerg. 9, 495–500

Wagner KH, Kamal-Eldin A, Elmadfa I. 2004. ?-Tocopherol an Underestimated Vitamin. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 48, 169-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000079555 PMid:15256801

Warner K, Frankel EN. 1987. Effect of B-carotene on Light Stability of Soybean Oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 64, 213-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02542004

Yousfi M, Nadjemi B, Bellal R, Ben-Bertal D, Palla G. 2002. Fatty Acids and Sterols of Pistacia Atlantica Fruit Oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 79, 1049-1050. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0601-8

Yousfi M, Nadjemi B, Bellal R, Bombarda I, Gaydou EM. 2005. Triacylglycerol Composition of Oil from Pistacia Atlantica Fruit Growing in Algeria. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82, 93-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-005-1048-7

Zengin G, Guler OG, Cakmak YS, Aktumsek A. 2011. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss & Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey. Grasas Aceites 62, 90-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.056010




Copyright (c) 2013 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es