Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 2 (2013)

Predictive ability of the feeding system in Iberian pig by means of several analytical methods


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.130812

J. M. García Casco
Centro de I+D en Cerdo Ibérico – INIA, Spain

M. Muñoz
Centro de I+D en Cerdo Ibérico – INIA, Spain

E. González
Animal Production, Escuela de Ingenierías Agrarias, Universidad de Extremadura, Spain

Abstract


The reliability of several analytical methods proposed to predict the feeding system received by Iberian pigs during the fattening period has been contrasted. Samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed from 38 batches of pigs fattened in three seasons of montanera (acorn and pastures feeding). They corresponded to the four categories described in the Quality Standard for Iberian pig products: 251 samples of bellota, 164 of recebo, 197 of cebo de campo and 137 of cebo. To perform the study, the following analytical methods were used: fatty acid quantification, NIR, alpha and gamma tocopherol, chemical sensor, triacilglycerides, stable isotopes and neophytadiene. The laboratories received the samples without any information about the fattening system to which they belonged and remitted their predictions with respect to the above categories. The results showed a high percentage of accurate predictions of the methods when the fattening type corresponds to the extreme categories (bellota and cebo), however, the methods had difficulty in discerning between samples from a mixed feeding regime with acorn and feed (recebo) and problems when pigs are fattened with compound feeds including vegetable fats with high levels of oleic acid. Although a simplification into only two categories (cebo/campo and recebo/bellota) results in a success rate higher than 90% for some methods, the combination of two or three techniques with problematic samples allows for differentiating among the four categories with the same accuracy.

Keywords


Analytical methods; Feeding categories; Iberian pigs Prediction; Quality Standard

Full Text:


PDF

References


BOE, Boletín Oficial del Estado. 1998. ORDEN de 22 de julio de 1998 por la que se homologa el contratotipo de compraventa de cerdos ibéricos cebados con destino a su sacrificio y elaboración, que regirá hasta el 31 de agosto de 1999. Num. 191, pp. 25956-25958.

BOE, Boletín Oficial del Estado. 2001. Real Decreto 1083/2001, de 5 de octubre, por el que se aprueba la norma de calidad para el jamón ibérico, paleta ibérica y ca-a de lomo ibérico elaborados en Espa-a. Num. 247, pp. 37830-37833.

BOE, Boletín Oficial del Estado. 2004. Orden PRE/3844/2004, de 18 de noviembre, por la que se establecen los métodos oficiales de toma de muestras en canales de cerdos ibéricos y el método de análisis para la determinación de la composición de ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales del tejido adiposo subcutáneo de cerdos ibéricos. Num. 283, pp. 38770-38779.

BOE, Boletín Oficial del Estado. 2007. Real Decreto 1469/2007, de 2 de noviembre, por el que se aprueba la norma de calidad para la carne, el jamón, la paleta y la ca-a de lomo ibéricos. Num. 264, pp. 45087-45104.

Carrasco A, Martín C, Lizaso J, Mallo JJ, López C, Gómez E, Rodríguez A, de Mercado E, Sanz E. 2007. El sensor químico como herramienta para la trazabilidad de los alimentos: aplicación en productos del cerdo Ibérico. Libro de Ponencias del IV Congreso Mundial del Jamón. Salamanca 2007, pp. 407-408.

De Pedro E, Garrido A, Lobo A, Dardenne P, Murray I. 1995. Objective classification of Iberian pig carcasses: GC versus NIR. GD Batten, PC Flinn, LA Welsh and AB Blakeney (Eds.). Leaping ahead with near infrared spectroscopy. NIR Spectroscopy Group. Royal Australian Chemistry Institute. Melbourne, Australia, pp. 291-295.

Flores J, Biron C, Izquierdo L, Nieto E. 1988. Characterization of green hams from Iberian pigs by fast analysis of subcutaneous fat. Meat Sci. 23, 253-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(88)90010-1

Gamero-Pasadas A, Viera-Alcaide I, Rios JJ, Graciani-Constante E, Vicario IM, León-Camacho M.2006. Characterization and quantification of the hydrocarbons fraction of the subcutaneous fresh fat of Iberian pig by off-line combination of high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A. 1123, 82-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2006.04.081 PMid:16714024

García-Olmo J, Garrido-Varo A, De Pedro E. 2009. Classification on real farm conditions Iberian pigs according to the feeding regime with multivariate models developed by using fatty acids composition of NIR spectral data. Grasas Aceites 60, 233-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.130408

González-Martín I, González-Pérez C, Hernández Méndez J, Sánchez González C. 2001.Differentiation of dietary regime of Iberian swine by means of isotopic analysis of carbon and sulphur in hepatic tissue. Meat Sci. 58, 25-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00126-1

Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Registro Informático del Cerdo Ibérico: http://www.magrama.gob.es/app/riber/Publico/BuscadorCensoAnimales.aspx.

Ordó-ez JA, López MO, Hierro E, Cambero MI, De la Hoz L. 1996. Efecto de la dieta de Cerdos Ibéricos sobre la composición en ácidos grasos del tejido adiposo y muscular. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 2, 383-390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/108201329600200604

Osorio E, Montero de Espinosa V, Sánchez JJ, Lozano M. 1991. Influencia de la alimentación sobre la composición en ácidos grasos del tejido adiposo de Cerdos Ibéricos. Rev. Agroquím. Tecnol. Alimentos 31, 558-564. Recio C. 2007. GC-C-IRMS de FAMEs y otras técnicas isotópicas para determinar la alimentación del cerdo Ibérico: un paso más allá. Libro de Ponencias del IV Congreso Mundial del Jamón. Salamanca 2007, pp. 59-63.

Rey AI, Daza A, López-Carrasco C, López-Bote CJ. 2006. Feeding Iberian pigs with acorns and grass in either free-range or confinement affects the carcass characteristics and fatty acids and tocopherols accumulation in L. dorsi muscle and backfat. Meat Sci. 73 66-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.10.018 PMid:22062055

Rey AI, Isabel B, Cava R, López-Bote CJ. 1998. Dietary acorns provide a source of gamma-tocopherol to pigs raised extensively. Canadian J. Animal Sci. 78, 441-443. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/A98-030

Tejeda J F, Antequera T, Ruiz J, Cava R, Ventanas J, García C. 1999. Unsaponifiable fraction and n-alkane profile of subcutaneous fat from Iberian ham. Food Sci. Technol. Inter. 5, 229-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/108201329900500305

Viera Alcaide I, Vicario IM, Escudero-Gilete ML, Graciani Constante E, León-Camacho M. 2008. A multivariate study of the triacylglycerols composition of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Iberian pig in relation to the fattening diet and genotype. Grasas Aceites 59, 327-336.




Copyright (c) 2013 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es