Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 3 (2013)

Phenolic compounds in mono-cultivar extra virgin olive oils from Algeria

M. Douzane
Laboratory of Food Technology, National Institute of the Agronomic research of Algeria, Algeria

A. Tamendjari
Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University of Bejaia, Algeria

A. K. Abdi
Laboratory of Food Technology, National Institute of the Agronomic research of Algeria, Algeria

M. S. Daas
Laboratory of Food Technology, National Institute of the Agronomic research of Algeria, Algeria

F. Mehdid
Laboratory of Food Technology, National Institute of the Agronomic research of Algeria, Algeria

M. M. Bellal
Department of Technology of the Food industry and human Nutrition. Agronomic National Institute of Algiers (INA), Algeria


The high oxidative stability of virgin olive oil is related to its high monounsaturated/polyunsaturated ratio and to the presence of antioxidant compounds, such as tocopherols and phenols. In this paper, the isolation of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil from several Algerian varieties was tested and discussed in order to know its potential uses and benefits. Quantification of phenolic and o-diphenolic substances was performed using the traditional Folin-Ciocalteau method and the sodium molybdate reaction, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative characterizations of phenolic compounds were carried out by HPLC.
The experimental results show that tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and 4-HBA (4-hydroxybenzoic acid) are the main individual phenolic compounds identified in the varieties studied. The varieties with large fruits (Grosse du Hamma, Aghenfas, Azeradj, Aguenaou, Aberkane, Bouchouk de Guergour, X-Aghenfas, Rougette de Guelma, Sigoise) are clearly distinguished from the varieties with medium-sized and small fruits by having the highest levels of individual phenolic compounds. Moreover, varieties with small fruits (Hamra, Chemlal, Boughenfas, Limli, Aimel and Mekki) presented the highest levels of oleuropein.


Algerian varieties; Chemical composition; Phenolic compounds; Virgin olive oil

Full Text:



Akasbi M, Shoeman DW, Saari Csallany A. 1993. High performance liquid chromatography of selected phenolic compounds in olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 70, 367-370.

Amiot MJ, Fleuriet A, Macheix J J. 1986. Importance and evolution of phenolic compounds in olive during growth and maturation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34, 823-826.

Angerosa F, D'Alessandro N, Konstantinou P, DiGiacinto L. 1995. GC-MS Evaluation of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43, 1802-1807.

Artajo LS, Romero MP, Suárez M, Motilva MJ. 2007. Partition of phenolic compounds during the virgin olive oil industrial extraction process. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 225, 617-625.

Baccouri O, Guerfel M, Baccouri B, Cerretani L, Bendini A, Lercker G, Zarrouk M, Daoud Ben Miled D. 2008. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils with regard to fruit ripening. Food Chem. 109, 743-754.

Beltrán G, Jiménez A, Aguilera MP, Uceda M. 2000. Phenolic fraction analysis by HPLC of Arbequina virgin olive oils. Relationship with bitterness K225 and oil stability. Grasas Aceites, 51, 320-324.

Beltrán G, Paz Aguilera M, Del Rio C, Sánchez S, Martinez L. 2005. Influence of fruit ripening process on the natural antioxidant content of Hojiblanca virgin olive oils. Food Chem. 89, 207–215

Bendini A, Bonoli M, Cerretani L, Biguzzi B, Lercker G, Toschi TG. 2003. Liquid-liquid and solid- phase extractions of phenols from virgin olive oil and their separation by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. J. Chromatogr. A, 985,424-433.

Bonoli M, Bendini A, Cerretani L, Lercker G, Toschi TG. 2004.Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils as a function of the ripening degree of olive fruits by different analytical techniques. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 7026-32 PMid:15537313

Boukachabine N, Kartas A, Ajana H, El Antari A. 2007. Evolution des polyphénols totaux et de l'amertume de l'huile au cours de la maturité des olives de la variété Picholine marocaine. Olivæ. 107, 29-33.

Cortesi N,Azzolini M, Rovellini P, Fedeli E. 1995. I componenti minori polari degli oli vergini di oliva: ipotesi di struttura mediante LC-MS. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Gr. 72, 241.

Dugo G, Turco V, Pollicino D, Mavrogeni E, Pipitone F. 2004. Caractérisation d'huiles d'olives vierges siciliennes. Variation qualitative des huiles des fruits des cultivars 'Biancolilla', 'Nocellara del Belice', 'Cerasuola', 'Tonda Iblea' et'Crastu' en fonction des techniques et de l'époque de récolte des olives. Olivae, 101, 44-52.

EC (1991). Commission Regulation (EEC) no 2568/91 on the Characteristics of Olive Oil and Olive Residue Oil and the Relevant Methods of Analysis. Official Journal of the European Community no L248.

Forcadell M L, Servili M, Comax M, Miguel X, De la Torre MC. 1987. Détermination du tyrosol et de l'hydroxytyrosol dans les huiles vierges d'olive. Ver. Franc. Corps Gras. 34, 547.

Gimeno E, Fitc M, Lamuela-Ravent.s R M, Farré M. 2002. Effect of ingestion of virgin olive oil on human low-density lipoprotein composition. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 56, 114-120. PMid:11857044

Gutiérrez-Rosales F, Arnaud T, Garrido A. 2001. Contribution of polyphenols to the oxidative stability of virgin olive oil. J. Sci. Food Agric. 81, 1463-1470.

Gutiérrez-Rosales F, R.os J J, Gómez-Rey L. 2003. Main polyphenols in the bitter Taste of virgin olive oil. Structural confirmation by on-line high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 6021-6025. PMid:13129311

Litridou M, Linssen J, Schols H, Bergmans M, Posthumus M,Tsimidou M, Boskou D. 1997. Phenolic compounds in virgin olive oils: Fractionation by solid phase extraction and antioxidant activity assessment. J. Sci. Food Agric. 74, 169-174.<169::AID-JSFA784>3.0.CO;2-2

Ministry for Agriculture and the Rural development (M.A.D.R) 2010. Report of the ministry for agriculture and the rural development. Program development of oleiculture 2010/2014.

Mateos R, Espartero JL, Trujillo M, Ríos JJ, León-Camacho, Alcudia F, Cert A. 2001. Determination of phenols, flavones and lignans in virgin olive oils by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet detection. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 1577-1580.

Mateos R, Trujillo M, Pérez-Camino C, Moreda W, Cert A. 2005. Relationships between oxidative stability, triacylglycerol composition, and antioxidant content in olive oil matrices. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 5766-5771. PMid:15998146

Montedoro G, Servili M, Baldioli M, Miniati E. 1992. Simple and hydrolyzable phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. 2. Simple charactérization of the hydrolyzable fraction. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 2185-2192.

Oliveras-López MJ, Innocenti M, Giaccherini C, Ieri F, Romani A, Mulinacci N. 2007. Study of phenolic composition of spanish and italian monocultivar extra olive oils : Distribution of lignans, secoiridoidic, simple phenols and flavonoids. Talanta 73, 726-732. PMid:19073094

Ollivier D, Pinatel C, Dupuy N, Guérère M, Artaud J. 2007. Caractérisations sensorielles et chimiques d'huiles d'olive vierges de six AOC françaises. Rev. OCL. 14, 116-129.

Pellegrini N, Visioli F, Buratti S, Brighenti F. 2001. Direct analysis of total antioxydant activity of olive oil and studies on the influence of heating. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 2532-2538. PMid:11368632

Pinelli P, Galardi C, Mulinacci N, Vincieri F F, Cimato A, Romani A. 2003. Minor polar compound and fatty acid analyses in monocultivar virgin olive oils from Tuscany. Food Chem. 80, 331-336.

Ryan D, Robards K, Lavee S.1998. Evaluation of the quality of the olive oil. Olivæ 75, 1–6.

Saitta M,Lo Curto S, Salvo F, Di Bella G, Dugo G. 2002. Gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric identification of phenolic compounds in Sicilian olive oils. Anal. Chim. Acta, 466, 335-344.

Singleton VL, Rossi JA. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolibdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16, 144-158.

Tamendjari A, Angerosa F, Mettouchi S et Bellal MM. 2009a. The effect of fly attack (Bactrocera oleae). On the quality and phenolic content of Chemlal olive oil. Grasas Aceites, 60, 509- 515.

Tamendjari A, Sahnoune M, Mettouchi S et Angerosa F. 2009b. Effet de l'attaque du ravageur Bactrocera oleae sur la qualité de l'huile d'olive de trois variétés algériennes: Chemlal, Azzeradj et Bouchouk. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Gr. 86, 103-111.

Tamendjari A, Laribi R, Bellal MM. 2011. Effet de l'attaque des olives par Bactrocera oleae sur la qualité et la fraction volatile de l'huile de deux variétés algériennes. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse. 88, 118-127.

The International Olive Oil Council. IOOC 2009. Détermination of des biophénols des huiles d'olive par HPLC. COI/T.20/Doc n° 29.

Tsimidou M, Papadopoulos G, Boskou D. 1992. Determination of phenolic compounds in Virgin olive oil by reversed-phase HPLC with emphasis on UV detection. Food Chem. 44, 53-60.

van der Sluis A, Dekker N, Van Boekel. 2005. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice 3. Stability during storage J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 1073-1080. PMid:15713022

Veillet S, Tomao V, Bonard I, Ruiz K, Chemat F. 2009. Chemical changes in virgin olive oils a function of crushing systems: Stone mil land hammer crusher. C.R. Chimie 12, 895-904.

Visioli F, Poli A, Galli C. 2002. Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil. Med. Res. Rev. 22, 65-7. PMid:11746176

Copyright (c) 2013 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support