Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 4 (2013)

Effect of gamma radiation on the lipid profiles of soybean, peanut and sesame seed oils


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.119712

A. M.R. Afify
Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

M. M. Rashed
Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

A. M. Ebtesam
Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

H. S. El-Beltagi
Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

Abstract


Seeds of soybean, peanut, and sesame were exposed to various doses of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy). Fatty acid and unsaponifiable profiles of the extracted oils were separated by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the ratios of unsaturated to saturated total fatty acids (TU/TS) and total hydrocarbons to sterols (TH/TSt) were significantly altered upon irradiation. These changes were clearly observed in the oil extracted from irradiated sesame seeds compared with the oils from irradiated peanuts and soybean. The major change in fatty acid composition was the decrease in the quantity of unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1 and C18:2) in all cases. In contrast, the sterol fractions such as cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol levels of irradiated seeds were generally lower than that of the un-irradiated seeds.

Keywords


Fatty acids; Gamma irradiation; Hydrocarbon; Oil seeds; Sterol

Full Text:


PDF

References


Afify AMR, Rashed MM, Ebtesam AM, El-Beltagi HS. 2011a. Effect of gamma radiation on protein profile, protein fraction and solubility of three oil seeds. Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj. 39, 90-98.

Afify AMR, El-Beltagi HS, Fayed SA, Shalaby EA. 2011b. Acaricidal activity of successive extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 1, 359-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60080-4

Afify AMR, El-Beltagi HS, Aly AA, El-Ansary AE. 2012a. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation as biomarker compounds for potato tuber stored by gamma radiation. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2, S1548-S1555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60451-1

Afify AMR, El-Beltagi HS, Aly AA, El-Ansary AE. 2012b. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation as biomarker for potato tuber stored by two essential oils Caraway and Clove and its main component Carvone and Eugenol. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2, S772-S780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60312-8

Ahmed FA, Ragaa OO, Khalil FA. 1986. Biochemical studies of the effect of growth regulator on safflower plant. Grasas Aceites 37, 68-71.

Alaoui JMA, Batist G, Lehnert S. 1992. Radiation-induced damage to DNA in drug- and radiation-resistant sublines of a human breast cancer cell lines. Radiat. Res. 129, 37-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3577900

Aly AA, El-Beltagi HES. 2010. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L. Grasas Aceites 61, 288-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.111509

AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 17th edn (edited by W. Horwitz) Washington, DC.

Ashri A. 2007. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). In: R.J. Singh, Ed., Genetics Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement, Vol.4, Oilseed Crops, p. 231289, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Basyony AE, El-Refaei MI, Galal MS, Barakat MIE. 1989. Effect of gamma irradiation on seed-borne fungi and soybean seed components during storage. Agric. Res. Rev. 67, 619-628.

Bhatti IA, Ashraf S, Shahid M, Asi MR, Mehboob S. 2010. Quality index of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) of the golden and bari varieties. Appl. Radiat. Isotopes. 68, 2197-2201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.05.017 PMid:20615718

Camargo AC, Canniatti-Brazaca SG, Mansi DN, Domingues MAC, Arthur V. 2011. Efeitos da radiação gama na cor, capacidade antioxidante e perfil de ácidos graxos em amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.). Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment. 31, 11-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612011000100002

Cetinkaya N, Ozyardımci B, Denli E, Ic E 2006. Radiation processing as a post harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and apricots. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 75, 424-431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2005.10.009

Champagne JR, Nawar WW. 1969. The volatile components of irradiated beef and pork fats. J. Food Sci. 34, 335-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1969.tb10358.x

Charbaji T, Nabulsi I. 1999. Effect of low dosess of gamma irradiation on in vitro growth of grapevine. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 57, 129-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006360513965

Chiou RYY, Shyu SL, Tasi CL. 1990. Characterization of gamma irradiated peanut kernels stored one year under ambient and frozen conditions. J. Food Sci. 56, 1375-1377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb04777.x

Chiou RYY, Tseng CY, Ho S. 1991. Characteristics of peanut kernels roasted under various atmospheric environments. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39, 1852-1856. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00010a033

Cui K, Xiao G, Yao WR. 1997. Analysis of fatty acids composition of peanut food. Peanut Sci. Technol. 4, 17-18.

Dogbevi MK, Vachon C, Lacroix M, 1999. Physicochemical and microbiological changes in irradiated fresh pork loins. Meat Sci. 51, 349-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00133-8

Choi CR, Hwang KT. 1997. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated and roasted sesame seeds. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74, 496-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-997-0108-y

Dubravcic MD, Nawar WW. 1968. Radiolysis of lipids. Mode of cleavage in simple triglycerides. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 45, 656-660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02541250 PMid:5679943

Dubravcic MF, Nawar WW. 1969. Effects of high-energy radiation on the lipids of fish. J. Agric. Food Chem. 17, 639-644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf60163a042

El-Beltagi HS. 2001. Biochemical studies on some Egyptian plants and its relation with environment. M. Sc. Thesis, Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.

El-Beltagi HES. 2011. Effect of roasting treatments on protein fraction profiles, some enzyme activities of Egyptian peanuts. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 62, 453-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2010.544642 PMid:21338250

El-Beltagi HS, Kesba HH, Abdel-Alim AI, Al-Sayed AA. 2011a. Effect of root-knot nematode and two species of crown on antioxidant activity of grape leaves. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10, 12202-12210.

El-Beltagi HS, Ahmed OK, El-Desouky W. 2011b. Effect of low doses γ-irradiation on oxidative stress and secondary metabolites production of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) callus culture. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 80, 968-976. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2011.05.002

El-Beltagi HS, Farahat AA, Alsayed AA, Mahfoud NA. 2012. Response of antioxidant substances and enzymes activities as a defense mechanism against root-knot nematode infection. Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj. 40, 132-142.

Erickson DR, Pryde EH, Brekke OL, Mounts TL, Falb RA. 1980. Handbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization. American Soybean Association and the American Oil Chemist's Society. St. Louis, Missouri and Champaign, Illinois.

Ewing D, Jones SR. 1987. Superoxide removal and radiation protection in bacteria, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 254, 53-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(87)90080-4

FAOSTATE Agriculture Data, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy (http://apps.Fao.org) (1998).

Foyer CH, Noctor G. 2002. Oxygen processing in photosynthesis: regulation and signaling. New Phytol. 146, 359-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00667.x

Golge E, Ova G. 2008. The effects of food irradiation on quality of pine nut kernels. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 77, 365-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2007.06.005

Gunckel JE, Sparrow AH. 1961. Ionizing radiations: Biochemical, Physiological and Morphological aspects of their effects of plants. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 16, 555-611.

Hafez YS, Mohamed AI, Singh G, Hewedy FM. 1985. Effect of gamma irradiation on protein and fatty acids of soybean. J. Food Sci. 50, 1271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1985.tb10459.x

Hwang KT. 1999a. Hydrocarbons detected in irradiated pork, bacon and ham. Food Res. Inter. 32, 389-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(99)00040-X

Hwang KT. 1999b. Hydrocarbons detected in irradiated shell eggs during storage. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 1183-1187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0093-4

Hwang KT, Yoo JH, Kim CK, Uhm TB, Kim SB, Park HJ. 2001. Hydrocarbons detected in irradiated and heattreated eggs. Food Res. Inter. 43, 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00170-8

Hwang KT, Kim JY, Park JN, Yang JS. 2007. Effects of roasting, powdering and storing irradiated soybeans on hydrocarbon detection for identifying post irradiation of soybeans. Food Chem. 102, 263-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.05.015

IAEA, Food Irradiation Newsltter (supplement) 1995. 19, 1-35.

Jiang ST, Shao1 P, Pan LJ, Zhao YY. 2006. Molecular Distillation for recovering Tocopherol and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Rapeseed Oil. Deodoriser Distillate Biosystems Engineering 93, 383-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2006.01.008

Kamal-Eldin A, Yousif G, Appelqvist LA. 1992. Seed lipids of Sesamum indicum and related wild species in Sudan. The sterols. J. Sci. Food Agric. 56, 327-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740590309

Katsaras J, Stinson RH, Kendal EJ, McKersie BD. 1986. Structural simulation of free radical damage in amodelmembrane system: a smallangle X-ray diffraction study. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 861, 243-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(86)90426-8

Lalas S, Gortzi O, Tsaknis J, Sflomos K. 2007. Irradiation Effect on Oxidative Condition and Tocopherol Content of Vegetable Oils. Inter. J. Mol. Sci. 8, 533-540. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/i8060533 PMCid:PMC3714613

Lawrie RA. 1974. "Meat Science": 2nd ed. Pergmon Press Ltd. Ozford, England.

Lesgards G, Raffi J, Pouliquen I, Chaouch AA, Giamarchi P, Prost M. 1993. Use of radiation-induced alkanes and alkenes to detect irradiated food containing lipids. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 70, 179-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02542623

Lee YS, Oh SH, Lee JW, Kim JH, Kim DS, Byun MW. 2003. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical and textural properties of starches. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 12, 508-512.

Lutfullah G, Zeb A, Ahmed T, Atta S, Bangash FK. 2003. Changes in the quality of sunflower and soybean oils induced by high doses of gamma radiations. J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 25, 69-76.

Mahrous SR. 2007. Chemical Properties of Aspergillus flavus-Infected Soybean Seeds Exposed to γ-Irradiation during Storage. Int. J. Agri. Biol. 9, 231-238.

Messina MJ. 1997. Soybean foods: their role in disease prevention and treatment. In Soybean: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization. Chapman and Hall: New York, USA, pp. 442-447.

Mexis SF, Kontominas MG. 2009. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physic-chemical and sensory properties of raw shelled peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.). J. Sci. Food Agric. 89, 867-875. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3526

Ming Li W, Li A, Ming Ha Y, Wang F, Li Zhang Y. 2011. Detection of gamma-irradiated peanuts by ESR spectroscopy and GC analysis of hydrocarbons. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 80, 501-504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2010.10.005

Mohamed HMA, Awatif II. 1998. The use of sesame oil unsaponifiable matter as a natural antioxidant. Food Chem. 62, 269-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00193-3

Mohsen GIM. 1996. Effect of gamma radiation on microbial contamination and poisoning substances in some oil seeds and their products. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Nawar WW. 1978. Reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of fats: A review. J Agric Food Chem. 26, 21-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf60215a079 PMid:621324

Nelson RG, Valeria N, Carlos AG. 2000. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 806-809. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9901744

Olsson M 1995. Alterations in lipid composition, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidative protection during senescence in drought stressed plants and nondrought stressed plants of Pisum sativum. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 33, 547-553.

Oyinlola A, Ojo A, Adekoya LO. 2004. Development of a laboratory model screw press for peanut oil expression. J. Food Eng. 64, 221−227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.10.001

Park JY, Hwang KT. 1999. Hydrocarbons as markers for identifying post- irradiated peanuts. J. Am. Oil Chem Soc. 76, 125-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0058-7

Patterson HBW. 1989. Handling and storage of oilseeds, oils, fats and meal. Elsevier App Sci NewYork.

Repine JE, Pfenninge DW, Talmage DW, Berger EM, Pettijohn DE. 1981. Dimethyl sulfoxide prevents DNA nicking mediated by ionizing radiation or iron/ hydrogen peroxide-generated hydroxyl radical. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. USA 78, 1001-1003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.78.2.1001 PMid:6940118 PMCid:PMC319933

Shahin Azza AM 1993. Control of fungus diseases during storage of certain economic crops using gamma radiation. Ph. D Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Sokolov AA 1965. Physico-chemical and biochemical basis of meat products technology. Food Industry pub. Moscow. (C. F. chem. Abs. 65, 11240c).

Spiegelberg A, Schulzki G, Helle N, Bogl KW, Schreiber GA. 1994. Methods for routine control of irradiated food: optimization of a method for detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons and its application to various foods. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 43, 433-444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0969-806X(94)90059-0

Steel LK, Hughes HN, Walden TL. 1988. Quantitative function and biochemical alterations in the peritoneal cells of mice exposed to whole-body gammairradiation. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 53, 943-964. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553008814551311

Vogel AI 1975. A textbook of practical organic chemistry. 3rd Ed., Longman, Group Limited London.

Voisine R, Vezina LP, Willemont C. 1991. Induction of senescence-like deterioration of micro small membranes from cauliflower by free radicals generated during gamma irradiation. Plant Physiol. 97, 545-550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.97.2.545 PMid:16668433 PMCid:PMC1081041

von Sonntag C. 1987. The Chemical Basis of Radiation Biology, Taylor and Francis, London.

Wills ED. 1980. Studies of lipid peroxide formation in irradiated synthetic diets and the effects of storage after irradiation. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys. Chem. Med. 37, 383-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553008014550471 PMid:6968723

Wise RR, Naylor AW. 1987. Chilling-enhanced photooxidation. Evidence for the role of singlet oxygen and superoxide in the breakdown of pigments and endogenous antioxidants. Plant Physiol. 83, 278-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.83.2.278 PMid:16665236 PMCid:PMC1056348

Xienia U, Foote GC, Van S, Devreotes PN, Alexander S, Alexander H. 2000. Differential developmental expression and cell type specificity of dictystelium catalases and their response to oxidative stress and UV light. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 149, 295-310.

Yalcin H, Ozturk I, Tulukcu E, Sagdic O. 2011. Effect of γ-irradiation on bioactivity, fatty acid compositions and volatile compounds of clary sage seed (Salvia sclarea L.). J. Food Sci. 76, 1056-1061. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02331.x PMid:22417543

Yook HS, Lee YS, Lee JW, Oh SH, Kim JH, Kim DS, Byun MW. 2004. Textural and sensory characteristics of gamma irradiated porridges. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 33, 427-432. http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2004.33.2.427

Zoumpoulakis P, Sinanoglou VJ, Batrinou A, Strati IF, Miniadis-Meimaroglou S, Sflomos K. 2012. A combined methodology to detect γ-irradiated white sesame seeds and evaluate the effects on fat content, physicochemical properties and protein allergenicity. Food Chem. 131, 713-721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.049




Copyright (c) 2013 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es