Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 4 (2013)

Effect of irrigation and pruning on the amount of minor compounds and fatty acids in the virgin olive oils of the variety Farga


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.119812

J. I. Monteleone
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina

C. A. Zuritz
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina

A. D. Gascón
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Argentina

J. A. Morábito
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo., Argentina

Abstract


The effect of different irrigation and pruning strategies on the amount of substances related to the oxidative stability of virgin olive oils of the variety Farga (polyphenols, chlorophylls, carotenoids and fatty acids), was analyzed. Four treatments were used: T100%SP (irrigation supplying 100% of the plants’ evaporative transpiration demand (Etc) during the entire cycle, without winter pruning); T50%SP (irrigation supplying 50% of the plants’ Etc from pit hardening to harvest, without winter pruning); T100%CP (irrigation supplying 100%, with pruning) and T50%CP (irrigation supplying 50%, with pruning). The plants’ hydric status was monitored through the stem hydric potential (SHP) at noon, and the soil moisture content and the photosynthetically active incident radiation within the tree branches were determined. The olive sampling was taken from pre-ripening to full maturity. The oil was extracted from the olives by grinding them in a laboratory screw type mill with thermo-kneading. The separation of solid and liquid phases was performed using a hand press and decanter to remove the oil. Chlorophylls and carotenoids (absorbance at 670 nm and 472 nm) and total polyphenols (at 725 nm), were determined by spectrophotometry on the mechanically extracted oil. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography (CGC). Oil yield data show no statistical differences between deficit irrigation covering 50% of the ETc and the control treatment, both in plants with or without pruning. The contents of polyphenols, chlorophylls and carotenoids in the oils decrease with fruit ripening, regardless of the initial content and treatment. Deficit irrigation treatments (T 50%) have higher contents of polyphenols (except for pre-envero sampling), chlorophylls and carotenoids. There are no statistically significant differences between treatments with and without pruning.

Keywords


Irrigation; Olive trees; Polyphenols; Pruning; Virgin olive oil

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