Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 5 (2013)

Characterization of Acorn Fruit Oils Extracted from Selected Mediterranean Quercus Species


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.023313

W. M. Al-Rousan
Department of Applied Science, Al-Huson University College, Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Jordan

R. Y. Ajo
Department of Applied Science, Al-Huson University College, Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Jordan

K. M. Al-Ismail
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Jordan

A. Attlee
Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

R. R. Shaker
Dept. of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan

T. M. Osaili
Dept. of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan

Abstract


The present study is aimed to identifying the acorn fruit oil composition of three Mediterranean white oak group species, Quercus aegilops (QA), Quercus infectoria (QI), and Quercus calliprinus (QC). Samples were estimated for the oil contents of acorn fruits, oil chemical and physical constants, fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and sterols.The oil content, expressed as dry weight, was found to be 3.40-7.51%. The physical and chemical constants included specific gravity 0.912-0.922, refractive index 1.4529-1.4645, specific extinction at 232 nm 2.497-2.536 and at 270 nm 1.495-2.037, iodine value 75.2-87.6, and saponification value 192.6-219.4. The fatty acid compositions were determined by GC as methyl esters. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (53.3-56.1%), linoleic 21.3-23.4%, palmitic 17.8-18.7%, linolenic 1.5-1.6% and stearic acid 1.02-1.60%. The Tocopherol content was high in the range of 1440-1783 mg kg-1, γ-tocopherol constituted 84-91% of total tocopherols. Phenolic compounds were in remarkable amounts in all the three species 84-109 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil. Total sterol contents were between 2040-2480 mg kg-1 oil, with β-sitosterol being the main component comprising of 77.20-84.61%, followed by ∆5-avenasterol (5.8-11.4%), campesterol (3.6-4.5%), and stigmasterol (2.6-3.8). The cholesterol content was relatively high (0.42-0.55%).

Keywords


Acorn oil; Fatty acid profile; Phenolic compounds; Quercus spp.; Sterols; Tocopherols

Full Text:


PDF

References


Al-Jassim R, Ereifej K, Shibli R, Abudabos A. 1988. Utilization of concentrated diets containing acorns (Quercus aegilops and Quercus coccifera) and urea by growing Awassi lambs. Small Ruminant Res. 29, 289-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(97)00124-7

Andrewes P, Busch J L H C, De Joode T, Groenewegen A, Alexandre H. 2003. Sensory properties of virgin olive oil polyphenols: Identification of deacetoxyligstroside aglycon as a key contributor to pungency. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 1415-1420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf026042j PMid:12590491

AOAC (1995). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (16th ed.). Gaithersburg, MD: AOAC International.

Bainbridge D. 1986. Use of acorns for food in California: past, present, future. Multiple-use management of California's hardwoods Symposium, November 12-14, San Luis Obispo, California.

Bernardo-Gil M, Lopes I, Casquilho M, Ribeiro M, Mercedes M, Empis J. 2007. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of acorn oil. J. Supercritical Fluids 40, 344-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2006.07.026

Bouderoua K, Selselet-Attou G. 2003. Fatty acid composition of abdominal adipose tissue in broilers fed green-oak (Quercus ilex), cork oak acorn (Quercus Suber L.) based diets. Anim. Res. 52, 377-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/animres:2003027

Duel H J. 1951. The Lipids: Their Chemistry and Biochemistry. 1:53-57.

Frega N, Bocci F, Lercker G. 1992. Direct gas chromatographic analysis of the unsaponifiable fraction of different oils, by using a polar capillary column. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 447-450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02540946

Garcia-Llatas G, Rodriguez-Estrada M. 2011. Current and new insight phytosterol oxides in plant sterolenriched food. Chem. Phys. Lipids 164, 607-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2011.06.005 PMid:21699886

García-Mesa J A, Luque de Castro M D, Valcárcel M. 1992. Direct automatic determination of bitterness in virgin olive oil by use of a flow injection-sorbent extraction system. Anal. Chim. Acta 261, 367-374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(92)80215-S

García Teresa R, Buron Arias I. 1977. Estudio comparativo de las propiedades quimicas y fisicoquimicas del aceite de bellota y de otros aceites comestibles. In: Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrárias (INIA): Tecnologia Agraria. 4, 123-148.

Gutfinger T. 1981. Polyphenols in olive oils, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 58, 966-968. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02659771

Hedrick U. 1919. Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants. Report of the New York Agric. Exp. Station, 20. Albany, NY.

Horrobin D, Manku M. 1983. How do polyunsaturated fatty acids lower plasma cholesterol levels? Lipids. 18, 558–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02535397 PMid:6312241

IOOC, International Olive Oil Council 2003. Trade standard applying to olive oil and olive-pomace oil. COI/ T.15/NC no. 2/Rev. 2, Madrid, Spain.

IUPAC 1995. Standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives, 6th edn (method II. D. 19). Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 96-102.

Jacknis I. 2004. Food in California Indian Culture, Hearst Museum Publications, Berkeley, CA.

Katsanidis E, Addis P. 1999. Novel HPLC analysis of tocopherols, tocotrienols and cholesterol in tissue. Free Radical Bio Med. 27, 1137-1140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(99)00205-1

Kiritsakis A K, Lenart E B, Willet W C, Hernandez R J. 1998. Olive Oil from the Tree to the Table, 2nd edition, Food & Nutrition Press, INC. Trumbull, Connecticut, 06611. USA. PP. 123.

León-Camacho M, Viera-Alcaidea I, Vicario I. 2004. Acorn (Quercus spp.) fruit lipids: saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions: a detailed study, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 81, 447-453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-004-0921-8

León-Camacho M, Garcia-González DL, Aparicio R, 2001. A detailed and comprehensive study of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentusL.) oil fatty profile. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 213, 349-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002170100340

Lopes I, Bernardo-Gil M. 2005. Characterisation of acorn oils extracted by hexane and by supercritical carbon dioxide, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 107, 12-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200401039

M'Hrit O, Benzyane M, Varrela MC Le chene-Liège au 1998. Maroc: Stratégie de Conservation et d'Amélioration. Ann Rech For Maroc (Special Issue): 127-144.

Mamedova, M E, Aslanov S M, Mirzoev O G. 1993. Chemical composition of the acorns of Quercus Castneifolia. Chem. Nat. Compd. 29, 609-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00630588

MoA, Ministry of Agriculture. 2003. "National Strategy for Agricultural Development". Amman, Jordan.

Nowar M, Al-Shawabkeh K Nissour H. 1994. Evaluation of Oak Acorn (Quercus coccifera) as Untraditional Energy Feedstuff for Complete Substitution of Corn Grains in Fattening Rabbit Ration. In: Rabbit Production in Hot Climates, Baselga, M. and I.F.M. Marai (Eds.), Zaragoza: CIHEAM-IAMZ: International Conference of Rabbit Production in Hot Climates, 1994/09/06-08, Cairo (Egypt), pp: 177-182.

Ofcarcik RP, Burns EE, Teer JG. 1971. Acorns for Human Food. Food Ind. Journal, 4,18

Özcan T. 2007. Characterization of Turkish Quercus L. Taxa Based on Fatty Acid Compositions of the Acorns. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 84, 653-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1087-8

Özcan T. 2006. Total protein and amino acid compositions in the acorns of Turkish Quercus L. taxa. Genet. Resour. Crop. Ev. 53, 419-429. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-004-1337-7

Özcan T, Gu.lr.z B. 2005. Some Elemental Concentrations in the Acorns of Turkish Quercus L. (Fagaceae) Taxa. Pak. J. Bot. 37, 361-371.

Rababah T, Ereifej K, Al-Mahasneh M., Alhamad M., Alrababah M., and Al-u'datt M. 2008. The Physicochemical Composition of Acorns for Two Mediterranean Quercus Species, Jordan J. Agric. Sci. 4, 131-137.

Rakic´ S, Petrovic´ S, Kukic´ J, Jadranin M, Tesˇevic´ V, Povrenovic´ D, Šiler-Marinkovic S. 2007. Influence of thermal treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of oak acorns from Serbia. Food Chem. 104, 830-834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.025

Smith J. 1950. Tree Crops: a permanent Agriculture, old Greenwich. Connecticut Devin-Adair, Co.

Sonntag N. 1979. Composition and Characteristics of Individual Fats and Oils, in Swern D. (Ed.) Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, Vol. 1, pp. 289-478.




Copyright (c) 2013 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es