Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 5 (2013)

Responses of fruit physiology and virgin oil quality to cold storage of mechanically harvested ‘Arbequina’ olives cultivated in hedgerow


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.063013

K. Yousfi
Department of Agroforestry Sciences, College of Engineering, University of Huelva, Spain

C. M. Weiland
Department of Agroforestry Sciences, College of Engineering, University of Huelva, Spain

J. M. García
Department of Physiology and Technology of Plant Products. Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain

Abstract


The increase in olive fruit production (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’), due to the increasing use of super-intensive cultivation and the need for a rapid fruit processing will force the industry to make a considerable investment in machinery for processing in order to maintain the level of quality of virgin olive oil (VOO). This work aims to study how the storage temperature affects the physiology of the olive and the quality of the oil, in order to use fruit storage as a cheaper and more versatile alternative to the increase in processing capacity. ‘Arbequina’ fruit did not present symptoms of chilling injury during 15 days of cold-storage. Postharvest decay, de-greening, softening, respiration and ethylene production of the olive fruit increased in direct relationship as the storage temperature increased. These facts determined a proportional deterioration of the free acidity and the sensory quality of the VOOs. Furthermore, the contents of tocopherols and of the main phenolic compounds in the VOO exhibited a reduction during fruit storage according to the increase in the temperature used. Storage at 2 °C preserved the integrity of the olive to maintain the best “Extra” level of VOO quality for a period of 12 days.

Keywords


Ethylene; Fruit color; Fruit softening; Olea europaea; Olive postharvest; Phenolic compounds; Respiration; Tocopherols

Full Text:


PDF

References


Agar, IT, Hess-Pierce B, Sourour MM, Kader AA. 1998. Quality of fruit and oil of black-ripe olives is influenced by cultivar and storage period. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 3415-3421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9803684

Agar IT, Hess-Pierce B, Sourour MM, Kader AA. 1999. Identification of optimum preprocessing storage conditions to maintain quality of black ripe 'Manzanillo' olives. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15, 53-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00059-3

Ben-David E, Kerem Z, Zipori I, Weissbein S, Basheer L, Bustan A, Dag A. 2010. Optimization of the Abencor system to extract olive oil from irrigated orchards. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 112, 1158-1165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201000056

Ben-Yahia L, Baccouri B, Ouni Y, Hamdi S. 2012. Quality, stability and radical scavenging activity of olive oils after Chetoui olives (Olea europaea L.) storage under modified atmospheres. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 18, 353-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1082013211428102 PMid:22859649

Castellano JM, García JM, Morilla A, Gutiérrez F, Perdiguero S. 1993. Quality of 'Picual' olive fruits under controlled atmospheres. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41, 537-539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00028a005

Clodoveo M L, Delcuratolo D, Gomes T, Colelli G. 2007. Effect of different temperatures and storage atmospheres on Coratina olive oil quality. Food Chem. 102, 571-576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.05.035

Clodoveo ML. 2012. Malaxation: Influence on virgin olive oil quality. Past, present and future - An overview. Trends Food Sci.Technol. 25, 13-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2011.11.004

Dag A, Boim S, Sobotin Y, Zipori I. 2012. Effect of mechanically harvested olive storage temperature and duration on oil quality. HortTechnol. 22, 528-533.

Ferguson L. 2006. Trends in Olive Harvesting. Grasas Aceites. 57, 9-15.

Fernández-Bola-os J, Heredia A, Vioque B, Castellano JM, Guillén R. 1997. Changes in cell-wall-degrading enzyme activities in stored olives in relation to respiration and ethylene production: Influence of exogenous ethylene. Z. Lebensm. Untersuch. Forsch. 204, 293-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002170050080

García JM, Gutiérrez F, Castellano JM, Perdiguero S, Morilla A, Albi MA. 1996. Influence of storage temperature on fruit ripening and olive oil quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 264-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf950399o

García JM, Yousfi K. 2006. Postharvest of mil olives. Grasas Aceites, 57, 16-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.2006.v57.i1.18

Garcia P, Brenes M, Romero C, Garrido A. 1995. Respiration and physicochemical changes in harvested olive fruits. J. Hortic. Sci. 70, 925-933.

Gómez del Campo M, Centeno A, Connor DJ. 2009. Yield determination in olive hedgerow orchards. I. Yield and profiles of yield components in north–south and east–west oriented hedgerows. Crop Pasture Sci. 60, 434-442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/CP08252

Kalua CM, Bedgood DR, Bishop AG, Prenzler P D. 2006. Changes in volatile and phenolic compounds with malaxation time and temperature during virgin olive oil production. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 7641-7651. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf061122z PMid:17002434

Kalua CM, Bedgood DR Jr., Bishop AG, Prenzler PD. 2008. Changes in virgin olive oil quality during lowtemperature fruit storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 2415-2422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf073027b PMid:18321051

Laübli W, Bruttel PA. 1986. Determination of the oxidative stability of fats and oils by the Rancimat method. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 63, 792-794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02541966

Marmesat S, Morales A, Velasco J, Dobarganes MC. 2010. Action and fate of natural and synthetic antioxidants during frying. Grasas Aceites, 61, 333-340. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.021910

Martinez JM, Mu-oz E, Alba J, Lanzón A. 1975. Report about the use of the 'Abencor' analyzer. Grasas Aceites 26, 379-385.

Martinez-Moreno JM, Pereda J, Gómez-Herrera C, Janer del Valle C. 1964. Estudios físico-químicos sobre las pastas de aceitunas molidas. XX. Viscosidades de los Alpechines. Grasas Aceites 15, 226-232.

Mateos R, Espartero JL, Trujillo M, Rios JJ, León-Camacho M, Alcudia F, Cert A. 2001. Determination of phenols, flavones, and lignans in virgin olive oils by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet detection. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 2185-2192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0013205 PMid:11368575

Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Rejano-Navarro L, Gandul-Rojas B, Sánchez-Gómez AH, Garrido-Fernández J. 1991. Colour pigment correlation in virgin olive oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68, 332-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02657688

Morello JR, Romero MP, Motilva MJ. 2004. Effect of the maturation process of the olive fruit on the phenolic fraction of drupes and oils from Arbequina, Farga, and Morrut cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 6002-6009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf035300p PMid:15366855

Nanos GD, Agtsidou E, Sfakiotakis EM. 2002. Temperature and propylene effects on ripening of green and black 'Conservolea' olives. HortSci. 37, 1079-1081.

Pastor M, Vega V, Hidalgo JC. 2005. Ensayos en plantaciones de olivar superintensivas e intensivas. Vida Rural 218, 30-34.

Petursson S, Decker EA, McClements DJ. 2004. Stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by cod protein extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 3996-4001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf035251g PMid:15186128

Ranalli A, Tombesi A, Ferrante ML., De Mattia G. 1998. Respiratory rate of olive drupes during their ripening cycle and quality of oil extracted. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77, 359-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199807)77:3<359::AID-JSFA43>3.0.CO;2-R

Rinaldi R, Amodio ML, Colelli G, Clodoveo ML. 2010. Controlled atmosphere storage of 3 italian cultivars of olives for oil production. Acta Hortic. 857, 97-106.

Ryan D, Robards K, Lavee S. 1999. Changes in phenolic content of olive during maturation. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 34, 265-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2621.1999.00261.x

Servili M, Selvaggini R, Espoto S, Taticchi A, Montedoro GF, Morozzi G. 2004. Health and sensory properties of virgin olive oil hydrophilic phenols: agronomic and technological aspects of production that affect their occurrence in the oil. Journal of Chromatography A. 1054, 113-127. PMid:15553137

Tous J, Romero A. 1992. Ficha varietal del cultivar 'Arbequina'. Olivae 43, 28-29.

Vichi S, Romero A, Gallardo-Chacón J, Tous J, López-Tamames E, Buxaderas S. 2009. Volatile phenols in VOOs: Influence of olive variety on their formation 0during fruits storage. Food Chem. 116, 651-656. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.086

Yousfi K, Weiland CM, García JM. 2012. Effect of harvesting system and fruit cold storage on virgin olive oil chemical composition and quality of superintensive cultivated 'Arbequina' olives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60, 4743-4750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf300331q PMid:22506860




Copyright (c) 2013 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es