Grasas y Aceites, Vol 65, No 4 (2014)

Investigation of a tunnel pasteurizer for “Nocellara del Belice” table olives processed according to the “Castelvetrano method”


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0578141

P. Catania
University of Palermo. Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Italy

M. Alleri
University of Palermo. Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Italy

A. Martorana
University of Palermo. Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Italy

L. Settanni
University of Palermo. Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Italy

G. Moschetti
University of Palermo. Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Italy

M. Vallone
University of Palermo. Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Italy

Abstract


The influence of pasteurization temperature and time of treatment on the flesh firmness and the evolution of microbial communities was studied for table olives Cv. Nocellara del Belice, packed in glass jars and processed with a tunnel pasteurizer. The experiment was first carried out on the laboratory level in order to select the optimal combination of pasteurization time/temperature so as to obtain the proper balance between the consistency of the pulp and the microbiological quality of the final product. Pasteurization at industrial scale was then carried out in a tunnel pasteurizer applying the treatment at 75 °C for 8 min in the thermal center of the jars. Besides flesh firmness and microbial evolutions, the pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and color were evaluated for the table olives during storage at 6, 12 and 15 months from packing. The table olives showed a high stability and acceptable flesh firmness for the entire period under observation. Specifically, olive pulp texture decreased during the storage period, but the softening was most evident in the deeper layers of the pulp. The results indicated that the storage period should not exceed 6 months. Although the hygiene is preserved, after this period the firmness might not be acceptable to consumers.

Keywords


Compression force; Dynamometer; Microbiological analysis; Table olives; Texture; Tunnel pasteurizer

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Aiello G, Catania P, Enea M, La Scalia G, Pipitone F, Vallone M. 2012. Real time continuous oxygen concentration monitoring system during malaxation for the production of Virgin Olive Oil. Grasas Aceites 63, 475−483. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.058012

Aponte M, Blaiotta G, La Croce F, Mazzaglia A, Farina V, Settanni L, Moschetti G. 2012. Use of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria for Spanish-style table olive fermentation. Food Microbiol. 30, 8−16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2011.10.005 PMid:22265277

Aponte M, Ventorino V, Blaiotta G, Volpe G, Farina V, Avellone G, Lanza CM, Moschetti G. 2010. Study of green Sicilian table olive fermentations through microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis. Food Microbiol. 27, 162−170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2009.09.010 PMid:19913708

Buckenhskes H, Gierschner K, Hammes WP. 1988. Theory and Praxis der Pasteurisation. Die Industrielle Obst - und Gemseverwertung, 9, Braunschweig.

Cardoso SM, Mafra I, Reis A, Georget DMR, Smith AC, Waldron KW, Coimbra MA. 2008. Effect of dry-salt processing on the textural properties and cell wall polysaccharides of cv. Thasos black olives. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88, 2079−2086. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3317

Carrara M, Catania P, Morello G, Vallone M. 2005. Influence of greenhouse different coverings on chemical and physical risk factors. Acta Hort. 691, 687−692.

Carrara M, Catania P, Pipitone F, Vallone M, Piraino S, Salvia M, Paolino C. 2008. Temperature and relative humidity distribution inside a greenhouse using wireless sensors. Acta Hort. 801, 595−599.

Catania P, Vallone M, Argento GF, Planeta D, Febo P. 2014. Instrumental evaluation of the texture of cv. Nocellara del Belice table olives. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Gr. in press.

Catania P, Vallone M, Pipitone F, Inglese, P, Aiello G, La Scalia G. 2013a. An oxygen monitoring and control system inside a malaxation machine to improve extra virgin olive oil quality. Biosyst Eng. 114, 1−8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2012.10.009

Catania P, Vallone M, Lo Re G, Ortolani M. 2013b. A wireless sensor network for vineyard management in Sicily (Italy). Agric Eng Int.: CIGR J. 15, 139–146.

Diezma B. 2004. Propiedades acùsticas aplicadas a la determinaciòn de los parámetros de calidad interna de productos hortofrutìcolas. Rev. Acùstica. 35, 3–4.

Dilay E, Vargas JVC, Amico SC, Ordonez JC. 2006. Modeling, simulation and optimization of a beer pasteurization tunnel. J. Food Eng. 77, 500–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.07.001

Engelman MS, Sani RL. 1983. Finite-element simulation of an in-package pasteurization process. Numer. Heat Transfer. 6, 41–54.

Escudero-Gilete ML, Melendez-Martınez AJ, Heredia FJ, Vicario IM. 2009. Optimization of olive-fruit paste production using a methodological proposal based on a sensory and objective color analysis. Grasas Aceites. 60, 396–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya010509

Harker FR, Maindonald J, Murray SH, Gunson FA, Hallett IC. Walker SB. 2002. Sensory interpretation of instrumental measurements 1: texture of apple fruit. Postharvest Biol. Tec. 24, 225–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(01)00158-2

Herppich WB, Herold B, Landahl S, De Baerdemaeker J. 2003. Interactive effects of water status and produce texture – an evaluation of non destructive methods. Acta Hort. 599, 281–288.

IOCC, International Olive Oil Council. 2004. Trade Standard Applying to Table Olives.

Johnston JW, Hewett EW, Banks NH, Harker FR, Hertog ML. 2001. Physical change in apple texture with fruit temperature: effects of cultivar and time in storage. Postharvest Biol. Tec. 23, 13–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(01)00101-6

Kabas O, Ozmerzi A. 2008. Determining the mechanical properties of cherry tomato varieties for handling. J. Texture Stud. 39, 199–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2008.00137.x

Kiliçkan A, Gu.ner M, 2008. Physical properties and mechanical behavior of olive fruits (Olea europaea L.) under compression loading. J. Food Eng. 87, 222–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.11.028

Manzocco L, Calligaris S, Mastrocola D, Nicoli MC, Lerici CR. 2001. Review of non enzymatic browning and antioxidant capacity in processed foods. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 11, 340–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(01)00014-0

Mehinagic E, Royer G, Bertrand D, Symoneaux R, Laurens F, Jourjon F. 2003. Relationship between sensory analysis, penetrometry and visible-NIR spectroscopy of apples belonging to different cultivars. Food Qual. Prefer. 14, 473–484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(03)00012-0

Ortiz C, Barreiro P, Ruiz-Altisent M, Riquelme F. 2000. An identification procedure for woolly soft-flesh peaches by instrumental assessment. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 76, 355–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jaer.2000.0545

Ozturk I, Ozturk I, Ercisli S, Kalkan F, Demir B. 2009. Some chemical and physico-mechanical properties of pear cultivars. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 8, 687–693.

Plazl I, Lakner M, Koloini T. 2006. Modeling of temperature distributions in canned tomato based dip during industrial pasteurization. J. Food Eng. 75, 400–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.057

Poiana M, Romeo FV. 2006. Changes in chemical and microbiological parameters of some varieties of Sicily olives during natural fermentation. Grasas Aceites 57, 402–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.2006.v57.i4.66

Pradas I, del Pino B, Pe-a F, Ortiz V, Moreno-Rojas JM, Fernández-Hernández A, Garcìa-Mesa JA. 2012. The use of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments for table olives preservation. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 13, 64–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2011.10.011

Randazzo CL, Ribbera A, Pitino I, Romeo FV, Caggia C. 2012. Diversity of bacterial population of table olives assessed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Food Microbiol. 32, 87–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2012.04.013 PMid:22850378

Romeo FV, De Luca S, Piscopo A, Perri E, Poiana M. 2009. Effects of post-fermentation processing on the stabilisation of naturally fermented green table olives (cv Nocellara Etnea). Food Chem. 116, 873–878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.037

Romeo FV, Piscopo A, Mincione A, Poiana M. 2012. Quality evaluation of different typical table olive preparations (cv Nocellara del Belice). Grasas Aceites 63, 19–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.058511

Sánchez-Gòmez AH, García-García P, Fernàndez AG. 2013. Spanish-style green table olive shelf-life. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 48, 1559–1568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12124

Servili M, Settanni L, Veneziani G, Esposto S, Massitti O, Taticchi A, Urbani S, Montedoro GF, Corsetti A. 2006. The use of Lactobacillus pentosus 1MO to shorten the debittering process time of black-table olives (cv. Itrana and Leccino): a pilot-scale application. J. Agr. Food Chem. 54, 3869–3875. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf053206y PMid:16719508

Topuz A, Topakci M, Canakci M, Akinci I, Ozdemir F. 2005. Physical and nutritional properties of four orange varieties. J. Food Eng. 66, 519–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.04.024

Valente M, Leardi R, Self G, Luciano G, Pain JP. 2009. Multivariate calibration of mango firmness using visible/ NIR spectroscopy and acoustic impulse method. J. Food Eng. 94, 7–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.02.020

Zheng YH, Amano RS. 1999. Numerical modeling of turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow in a tunnel pasteurization process. In Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Nashville. 364, 219–227.




Copyright (c) 2014 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es