Grasas y Aceites, Vol 66, No 1 (2015)

Physicochemical and sensory properties of Celta dry-ripened “salchichón” as affected by fat content


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0709142

S. Fonseca
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Spain

M. Gómez
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Spain

R. Domínguez
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Spain

J. M. Lorenzo
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Spain

Abstract


This work studies the effect of fat content on the main characteristics of a traditional, Spanish dry-ripened sausage called “salchichón” from the Celta pig breed manufactured with 10, 20 and 30% back fat. Physicochemical properties, color, texture and free fatty acid profile were evaluated throughout the process after 0, 7, 21, 35 and 49 days of ripening, while the study of the volatile compound profile and the sensory evaluation were only performed on the final products. In general, most of the studied physicochemical, color and textural parameters were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by fat levels. Lipolytic reactions were also enhanced with increasing fat levels leading to a higher free fatty acid release. Sausages with 10% fat exhibited a higher content of volatile compounds, even though they did not show significant differences in flavor intensity. The sensory evaluation also reflected a preference for the texture of the sausages with 30% fat. This fact leads us to conclude that, although fat reduction would improve the nutritional quality of dry-ripened meat products, it can only be successful to a certain extent. Therefore, a formulation including 20% fat would be the most suitable for the elaboration of “salchichón” the from Celta pig breed.

Keywords


Celta pig breed; Dry-ripened sausage; Fat content; Free fatty acids; Volatile compounds

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Ansorena D, Gimeno O, Astiasaran I, Bello J. 2001. Analysis of volatile compounds by GC–MS of a dry fermented sausage: chorizo de Pamplona. Food Res. Int. 34, 67–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00133-2

Berdagué JL, Monteil P, Montel MC, Talon R. 1993. Effects of starter cultures on the formation of flavour compounds in dry sausage. Meat. Sci. 35, 275–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(93)90033-E

Bruna JM, Fernández M, Hierro EM, Ordóñez JA, Hoz L. 2000. Improvement of the sensory properties of dry fermented sausages by the superficial inoculation and/or the addition of intracellular extracts of Mucor racemosus. J. Food Sci. 65, 731–738. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2000.tb16081.x

Buscailhon S, Berdagué JL, Monin G. 1993. Time-related changes in volatile compounds of lean tissue during processing of French dry-cured ham. J. Sci. Food Agric. 63, 69–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740630112

Carreau JP, Dubacq JP. 1978. Adaptation of a macro scale method to the micro scale for fatty acid methyl transesterification of biological lipid extracts. J. Chromatogr. 151, 384–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)88356-9

Carril JA, Rivero CJ, Fernández M, Lorenzo JM. 2012. La raza, in CETECA (Ed.) Manual del Cerdo Celta, Spain.

Casquete R, Benito MJ, Martín A, Ruiz-Moyano S, Córdoba JJ, Córdoba MG. 2011. Role of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the sensory and safety properties of a traditional Iberian dry-fermented sausage "salchichón". Food Microbiol. 28, 1432–1440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2011.07.004

Chevance FF, Farmer LJ, Desmond EM, Novelli E, Troy DJ, Chizzolini R. 2000. Effect of some fat replacers on the release of volatile aroma compounds from low-fat meat products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3476–3484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf991211u

Coutron-Gambotti C, Gandemer G. 1999. Lipolysis and oxidation in subcutaneous adipose tissue during dry-cured ham processing. Food Chem. 64, 95–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00079-X

Ferguson LR, Philpott M, Karunasinghe N. 2004. Dietary cancer and prevention using antimutagens. Toxicology 198, 147–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2004.01.035

Folch J, Lees M, Sloan-Stanley GH. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497–509.

Franco D, Vázquez JA, Lorenzo JM. 2014. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of the Celta pig crossbred with Duroc and Landrace genotypes. Meat Sci. 96, 195–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.06.024

Gandemer G. 2002. Lipids in muscles and adipose tissues, changes during processing and sensory properties of meat products. Meat Sci. 62, 309–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00128-6

García-Regueiro JA, Gilbert J, Díaz I. 1994. Determination of neutral lipids from subcutaneous fat of cured ham by capillary gas chromatography and liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 667, 225–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)89071-4

Gómez M, Lorenzo JM. 2013. Effect of fat level on physicochemical, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of dry-ripened "chorizo" from Celta pig breed. Meat Sci. 95, 658–666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.06.005

González-Fernández C, Santos EM, Rovira J, Jaime I. 2006. The effect of sugar concentration and starter culture on instrumental and sensory textural properties of chorizo-Spanish dry-cured sausage. Meat Sci. 74, 467–475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.019

ISO. 1991. Method of investigating sensitivity of taste, ISO 3972:1991. International Organization for Standardization. Genève, Switzerland.

ISO. 1994. Methodology. Texture profile, ISO 11036:1994. International Organization for Standardization. Genève, Switzerland.

ISO. 1997. Determination of moisture content, ISO 1442:1997 standard, in International Organization for Standardization (Ed.) International standards meat and meat products, Switzerland.

ISO. 2006. Methodology. Initiation and training of assessors in the detection and recognition of odours, ISO 5496:2006. International Organization for Standardization. Genève, Switzerland.

ISO. 2007. General guidance for the design of test rooms, ISO 8589:2007. International Organization for Standardization. Genève, Switzerland.

ISO. 2012. Sensory analysis - General guidance for the selection, training and monitoring of assessors - Part 1: Selected assessors, ISO 8586:2012. International Organization for Standardization. Genève, Switzerland.

Liaros NG, Katsanidis E, Bloukas JG. 2009. Effect of the ripening time under vacuum and packaging film permeability on processing and quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 83, 589–598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.07.006

Lorenzo JM. 2014. Influence of the type of fiber coating and extraction time on foal dry-cured loin volatile compounds extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Meat Sci. 96, 179–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.06.017

Lorenzo JM, Franco D, Carballo J. 2014. Effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "Lacón" from Celta pig breed. Meat Sci. 96, 211–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.07.007

Lorenzo JM, Franco D. 2012. Fat effect on physico-chemical, microbial and textural changes through the manufactured of dry-cured foal sausage: lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory properties. Meat Sci. 92, 704–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.06.026

Lorenzo JM, Montes R, Purriños L, Cobas N, Franco D. 2012a. Fatty acid composition of Celta pig breed as influenced by sex and location of fat in the carcass. J. Sci. Food Agr. 92, 1311–1317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4702

Lorenzo JM, Montes R, Purriños L, Franco D. 2012b. Effect of pork fat addition on the volatile compounds of foal dry-cured sausage. Meat Sci. 91, 506–512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.03.006

Lorenzo JM, Temperán S, Bermúdez R, Cobas N, Purriños L. 2012c. Changes in physico-chemical, microbiological, textural and sensory attributes during ripening of drycured foal salchichón. Meat Sci. 90, 194–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.06.025

Lorenzo JM, Bedia M, Bañon S. 2013. Relationship between flavour deterioration and the volatile compound profile of semi-ripened sausage. Meat Sci. 93, 614–620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.11.006

Lücke FK. 1994. Fermented meat products. Food Res. Int. 27, 299–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0963-9969(94)90098-1

Mendoza E, García ML, Casas C, Selgas MD. 2001. Inulin as fat substitute in low fat, dry fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 57, 387–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00116-9

Muguerza E, Ansorena D, Bloukas JG, Astiasarán I. 2003. Effect of fat level and partial replacement of pork backfat with olive oil on the lipid oxidation and volatile compounds of Greek dry fermented sausages. J. Food Sci. 68, 1531–1536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb09679.x

Muguerza E, Gimeno O, Ansorena D, Bloukas JG, Astiasarán I. 2001. Effect of replacing pork backfat with pre-emulsified olive oil on lipid fraction and sensory quality of Chorizo de Pamplona – A traditional Spanish fermented sausage. Meat Sci. 59, 251–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00075-4

Muriel E, Antequera T, Petrón MJ, Andrés AI, Ruiz J. 2004. Volatile compounds in Iberian dry-cured loin. Meat Sci. 68, 391–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.04.006

Navarro JL, Nadal M, Izquierdo L, Flores J. 1997. Lipolysis in dry cured sausages as affected by processing conditions. Meat Sci. 45, 161–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(96)00118-0

Navarro JL, Nadal MI, Nieto P, Flores J. 2001. Effect of nitrate and nitrite curing salts on the generation and oxidation of fatty acids in non-fermented sausages. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 212, 421–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002170000275

Olivares A, Navarro JL, Flores M. 2011. Effect of fat content on aroma generation during processing of dry fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 87, 264–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.10.021

Olivares A, Navarro JL, Salvador A, Flores M. 2010 Sensory acceptability of slow fermented sausages based on fat content and ripening time. Meat Sci. 86, 251–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.005

Pérez-Álvarez JA, Sayes-Barbare ME, Fernández-López J, Aranda-Catala V. 1999. Physicochemical characteristics of Spanish type dry-cured sausage. Food Res. Int. 32, 599–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(99)00104-0

Purriños L, Carballo J, Lorenzo JM. 2013. The Influence of Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida deformans and Candida zeylanoides on the aroma formation of dry-cured "lacón". Meat Sci. 93, 344–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.09.015

Purriños L, Franco D, Carballo J, Lorenzo JM. 2012. Influence of the salting time on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured pork shoulder "Lacón". Meat Sci. 92, 627–634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.06.010

Purriños L, Bermúdez R, Franco D, Carballo J, Lorenzo JM. 2011. Development of volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" a Spanish traditional meat product. J. Food Sci. 76, C89–C97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01955.x

Ramírez R, Cava R. 2007. Volatile profiles of dry-cured meat products from three different Iberian X Duroc genotypes. J. Agr. Food Chem. 55, 1923–1931. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf062810l

Roberts DD, Pollien P, Antille N, Lindinger C, Yeretzian C. 2003. Comparison of nosespace, headspace, and sensory intensity ratings for the evaluation of flavor absorption by fat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3636–3642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf026230+

Ruiz J, Ventanas J, Cava R, Andrés A, García C. 1999. Volatile compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham as affected by the length of the curing process. Meat Sci. 52, 19–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00144-2

Salazar P, García ML, Selgas MD. 2009. Short-chain fructooligosaccharides as potential functional ingredient in dry fermented sausages with different fat levels. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44, 1100–1107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.01923.x

Soyer A, Ertas AH, Üzümcüoglu Ü. 2005. Effect of processing conditions on the quality of naturally fermented Turkish sausages (sucuks). Meat Sci. 69, 135–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.06.015

Spaziani M, Del Torre M, Stecchini ML. 2009. Changes of physicochemical, microbiological, and textural properties during ripening of Italian low-acid sausages. Proteolysis, sensory and volatile profiles. Meat Sci. 81, 77–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.06.017

Vyncke W. 1975. Evaluation of the direct thiobarbituric acid extraction method for determining oxidative rancidity in mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.). Fett. Wiss. Technol. 77, 239–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lipi.19750770610




Copyright (c) 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es