Grasas y Aceites, Vol 66, No 1 (2015)

Fatty acid composition of soybean/sunflower mix oil, fish oil and butterfat applying the AOCS Ce 1j-07 method with a modified temperature program


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0692141

L. Masson
Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Grasas y Aceites. CIDGRA, Universidad de Chile - Instituto de Nutrição Josué de Castro, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Chile

T. Alfaro
Instituto Costarricense de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud (INCIENSA), Costa Rica

C. Camilo
Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Grasas y Aceites - CIDGRA, Universidad de Chile, Chile

A. Carvalho
Instituto de Nutrição Josué de Castro, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

P. Illesca
Bromatología y Nutrición, Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina

R. Torres
Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

M. Tavares do Carmo
Instituto de Nutrição Josué de Castro, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

J. Mancini-Filho
Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

C. Bernal
Bromatología y Nutrición, Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina

Abstract


Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC) methods such as AOAC Fat in foods 966.06 (2005), AOCS Official Methods Ce 1h-05 (2005), Ce 1j-07 (2007), allow for analyzing the fatty acids (FAs) in dietary fats using highly polar liquid phase capillary columns. However, there are still difficulties in completely separating butiric acid from solvent, FA critical pairs with similar polarity, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, and long chainpolyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs). Therefore, the selection of the temperature program to be employed is important. This work aimed to improve the AOCS Ce 1j-07 Method for the FA composition of a mixture of soybean and sunflower oil, fish oil, and butterfat, using a modified temperature program, tested among five laboratories. It takes more time, but it allows to completely separate butyric acid from the solvent, trans-18:1 from cis-18:1, 20:1 isomers from 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 from 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3 from 24:0 and the main CLA isomers, thus permitting FA quantification in fats and oils for different purposes such as nutritional labeling, quality control and research.

Keywords


AOCS Ce 1j-07 Method; Butterfat; Fatty acid composition; Fish oil – Soybean/sunflower oil mixture

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


AOAC. 2005. Official method 996.06. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 18th Ed. AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Gaithersburg, MD.

AOCS. 2005. Official method Ce 1h-05. Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS. 6th Ed. AOCS, Champaign, IL, USA.

AOCS. 2007a. Official method Ce 1i-07. Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS. 6th Ed. AOCS. Champaign, IL, USA.

AOCS. 2007b. Official method Ce 1j-07. Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS. 6th Ed. AOCS, Champaign, IL, USA.

AOCS. 2011. Official Method Ce 2b-11. Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS. 6th Ed. AOCS, Champaign, IL, USA.

AOCS. 2011. Official Method Ce 2c-11. Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS. 6th Ed. AOCS, Champaign, IL, USA.

Ackman RG. 1998. The year of fish oil. Chem. Indus. 3, 139–145.

Christie WW, Dobson G, Adlof RO. 2007. A practical guide to the isolation, analysis and identification of conjugated linoleic acid. Lipids 42, 1073–1084. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-007-3107-8

Destaillats F, Golay PA, Joffre F, Wispelaere M, Hug B, Giuffrida F, Fauconnot L, Dionisi F. 2007. Comparison of available analytical methods to measure trans-octadecenoic acid isomeric profile and content by gas-liquid chromatography in milk fat. J. Chromatog. A 1145, 222–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.01.062

Dionisi F, Golay PA, Fay LB. 2002. Influence of milk fat presence on the determination of trans fatty acids in fats used for infant formulae. Anal. Chim. Acta 465, 395–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00126-5

Firestone D. 2006. Physical and chemical characteristics of oils, fat and waxes. 2nd Ed. AOCS Press. Champaign, IL, USA. International Standard ISO 5509, 2000 (E). Animal and vegetable fats and oils-Preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids. 2nd Ed. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Kramer JK, Sehat N, Dugan ME, Mossoba MM, Yurawecz MP, Roach JA, Eulitz K, Aalhus JL, Schaefer AL, Ku Y. 1998. Distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in tissue lipid classes of pigs fed a commercial CLA mixture determined by gas chromatography and silver ion-highperformance liquid chromatography. Lipids 33, 549–558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-998-0239-1

Kramer JKG, Cruz-Hernández C, Deng Z, Zou J, Jahreis G, Dugan MER. 2004. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18:1 isomers in synthetic and animal products. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79, 1137S–1145S.

Kramer JKG, Hernández M, Cruz-Hernández C, Kraft J, Dugan MER. 2008. Combining results of two GC separations partly achieves determination of all cis and trans 16:1, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 except CLA isomers in milk fat as demonstrated using Ag-ion SPE fractionation. Lipids 43, 259–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-007-3143-4

Manzano P, Diego JC, Nozal MJ, Bernal JL, Bernal J. 2012. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach to study fatty acid profiles in fried potato crisps. J. Food Compos. Anal. 28, 31–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2012.07.003

Mendez C, Masson L, Jiménez P. 2010. Estabilización de aceites de pescado por medio de antioxidantes naturales. Aceites Grasas 80, 270–278.

Mossoba MM, Kramer JKG. 2009. Official methods for the determination of trans fat. 2nd Edition, AOCS Press, Urbana, IL. 1–74.

Ratnayake WMN. 2004. Overview of methods for the determination of trans fatty acids by gas chromatography, silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, silver-ion liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. AOAC Int. 87, 523–539.

Ratnayake WMN, Hansen S, Keneddy MP. 2006. Evaluation of the CP Sil 88 and SP-2560 GC columns used in the recently approved AOCS Official Method Ce 1h-05: determination of cis-, trans-, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable or non-ruminant animal oils and fats by capillary GLC method. J. AOAC Int. 89, 475–488.

Roach JA, Yurawecz MP, Kramer JK, Mossoba MM, Eulitz K, Ku Y. 2000. Gas chromatography-high resolution selected-ion mass spectrometric identification of trace 21:0 and 20:2 fatty acids eluting with conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Lipids 35, 797–802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-000-0588-9

Romero N, Robert P, Masson L, Luck C, Buchmann L. 1996. Composición en ácidos grasos y aporte de colesterol de conservas de jurel, sardina, salmón y atún al natural. Arch. Latinoam. Nutr. 46, 75–77.

Rozema B, Mitchell B, Winters D, Kohn A, Sullivan D, Meinholz E. 2008. Proposed modifications to AOAC 996.06, optimizing the determination of trans fatty acids: presentation of data. J. AOAC Int. 91, 92–97.

Ruiz-Rodriguez A, Reglero G, Ibañez E. 2010. Recent trends in the advanced analysis of bioactive fatty acids. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 51, 305–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2009.05.012

Santercole V, Delmonte P, Kramer J. 2012. Comparison of separations of fatty acids from fish products using a 30-m Supelcowax-10 and a 100-m SP-2560 column. Lipids 47, 329–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-011-3645-y

Seppänen-Laakso T, Laakso I, Hiltunen R. 2002. Analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography, and its relevance to research on health and nutrition. Anal. Chim. Acta 465, 39–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00397-5

Smith S, Hansen SL. 2008. Statistical analysis of the collaborative study in support of the Official Method AOCS Ce 1i-07: Determination of saturated, cis-monounsaturated and cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine and other oils containing long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by capillary GLC. J. AOCS Int. 85, 901–909. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-008-1287-x

Thompson M, Ellison SL, Wood R. 2006. The international harmonized protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical chemistry laboratories (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. 78, 161–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/pac200678010145

Van de Voort FR, Ghetler A, García-González DL, Li YD. 2008. Perspectives on Quantitative Mid-FTIR Spectroscopy in Relation to Edible Oil and Lubricant Analysis: Evolution and Integration of Analytical Methodologies. Food Anal. Methods 1, 153–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12161-008-9031-6




Copyright (c) 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es