Grasas y Aceites, Vol 66, No 3 (2015)

Physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of oil extracted from dry alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seeds

A. Al-Farga
State key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University - Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ibb University, Yemen

H. Zhang
State key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China

A. Siddeeg
State key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University - Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Gezira, Sudan

M. V.M. Chamba
State key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University - Department of Human Ecology, Domasi College of Education, Malawi

Q. A. Nabil
State key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China


In this study, the chemical composition, physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed oil were evaluated. The crude oil content was 11.49%, ash 6.88%, moisture 6.12%, protein content 14.60%, total carbohydrate 24.77% and fiber 36.13%. The oil contain a high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids (74.63 mg·100 g−1) with oleic (C18:1) (57.77%), palmitic (C16:0) (18.65%) and linoleic (C18:2) (12.88%) acids as the most abundant. The relative density was 0.88 and the iodine value 105.59. The color analysis showed a value of 28.33 Y+1.43 R. The oil also had a high relative oxidative stability. The tocol composition showed that α-tocotrienol, γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol were in a higher concentration than the rest. Seven phenolic acids (caffeic, vanillic, galic, p-coumaric, ascorbic, cinnamic and ferulic) were detected, with ascorbic acid as the predominant one (5.44 mg·100 g−1). In relation to the volatile composition, 48 compounds were found with Z-10-Pentadecen-1-ol (56.73%); Hexadecenoic acid, Z-11- (18.52%); 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (3.93%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester (3.04%) as the most abundant. These findings demonstrated the potential of alhydwan seeds to be used as a good source of quality edible oil.


Alhydwan; Boerhavia elegana Choisy; Novel food; Phenolic acids; Physicochemical properties; Volatile compounds

Full Text:



Al-Farga A, Zhang H, Azhari S. 2014. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) Seeds. J. Food Nutr. Res. 2, 215–220.

Al-Saqer JM, Sidhu JS, Al-Hooti SN, Al-Amiri HA, Al-Othman A, Al-Haji L, Ahmed N, Mansour I, Minal J. 2004. Developing functional foods using red palm IIII olein. IV. Tocopherols and tocotrienols. Food Chem. 85, 579–583.

American Soybean Association Soy Stats. 2007. A reference guide to important Soybean Fats and Figures.

AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 17th ed., Vols. 1 and 2, AOAC International, Gaitherburg, Maryland, USA Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists.

AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. Washington, USA.

AOCS. 1997. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists Society, 5th ed. AOCS Press, Champaign, USA.

Aparicio R, Roda L, Albi MA, Gutiérrez F. 1999. Effect of various compounds on virgin olive oil stability measured by Rancimat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 4150–4155. PMid:10552782

Azhari S, Xu YS, Jiang QX, Xia WS. 2014. Physicochemical properties and chemical composition of Seinat (Cucumismelo var. tibish) seed oil and its antioxidant activity. Grasas Aceites, 65, 1–9.

Besbes S, Blecker C, Deroanne C, Drira NE, Attia H. 2004. Date seeds: chemical composition and characteristic profiles of the lipid fraction. Food Chem. 84, 577–584.

Boulous L. 1988. Contribution to the flora of South Yemen (PDRY). Candollea, 43, 549–585.

Bowen RAR, Clandinin MT. 2005. Maternal dietary 22:6n-3 is more effective than 18:3n-3 in increasing the 22:6n-3content in phospholipids of glial cells from neonatal rat brain. Brit. J. Nutr. 93, 601–611. PMid:15975158

Bruneton J, 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants: Essential Oils, 2nd ed. Lavoisier Publishing, New York, pp. 461–780.

Chaudhary G, Dantu PK. 2011. Morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological, studies on Boerhavia diffusa L. J. Med. Plants Res. 5, 2125–2130.

da Silva Araújo F, Araújo IC, Costa ICG, Rodarte de Moura CV, Chaves MH, Araújo ECE. 2014. Study of degumming process and evaluation of oxidative stability of methyl and ethyl biodiesel of Jatropha curcas L. oil from three different Brazilian states. Renewable Energy 71, 495–501.

Duyff RL, Ada AF. 2011. American dietetic association complete food and nutrition guide: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

El-Mallah MH, Mumi T, El-Shami S. 1999. New trends in determining the authenticity of corn oil. Grasas Aceites 50, 7–15.

Eromosele IC, Eromosele CO, Innazo P, Njerim P. 1997. Studies on some seeds and seed oils. Bioresour. Technol. 64, 245–247.

Fatnassi S, Nehdi I, Zarrouk H. 2009. Chemical composition and profile characteristics of Osage orange Maclurapomifera (Rafin.) Schneider seed and seed oil. Ind. Crops Prod. 29, 1–8.

Goff SA, Klee HJ. 2006. Plant volatile compounds: sensory cues for health and nutritional value? Science, 311, 815–819. PMid:16469919 Hsu SY, Yu SH. 2002. Comparisons on 11 plant oil fat substitutes for low-fat kung-wans. J. Food Eng. 51, 215–220.

ISO/FIDS 12228. 1999. International Standards, 1st ed. Genève, Switzerland.

Jelassi A, Cheraief I, Jannet HB. 2014. Chemical composition and characteristic profiles of seed oils from three Tunisian Acacia species. J. Food Comp. Anal. 33, 49–54.

Kyriakidis NB, Katsiloulis T. 2000. Calculation of iodine value from measurements of fatty acid methyl esters of some oils: comparison with the relevant American Oil Chemists Society Method. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77, 1235–1238.

Mohamed R, Fernandez J, Pineda M, Aguilar M. 2007. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil is a rich source of tocopherol. J. Food Sci. 72, S207–S211. PMid:17995816

Mulatu G, Sten S, Thomas B. 2011. Variation and inheritance of oil content and fatty acid composition in niger (Guizotiaabyssinica). J. Food Comps. Anal. 24, 995–1003.

Nehdi I, Omri S, Khalil MI, Al-Resayes SI. 2010. Characteristics and chemical composition of date palm (Phoenix canariensis) seeds and seed oil. Indus. Crops. Prod. 32, 360–365.

Nyam KL, Tan CP, Lai OM, Long K, Mana CYB. 2009. Physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of selected seed oils. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 42, 1396–1403.

Nyam KL, Tan CP, Lai OM, Long YB, Che M. 2009. Physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of selected seed oils. LWT -Food Sci. Technol. 42, 1396–1403.

Ojeh O. 1981. Effects of refining on the physical and chemical properties of cashew kernel oil. J. Fats Oils Technol. 16, 513–517.

Oomah BD, Ladet S, Godfrey DV, Liang J, Girard B. 2000. Characteristics of raspberry (Rubusidaeus L.) seed oil. Food Chem. 69, 187–193.

Osborne DR, Voogt P. 1978. Calculation of Caloric Value. In: "Analysis of Nutrients in Foods". Academic Press, New York, pp. 23–34.

Ranganna S. 1986. Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. New Delhi: Tata Me Graw-Hill Publishing Company. 1112 pp.

Saidu AN, Jideobi NG. 2009. The proximate and elemental analysis of some leafy vegetables grown in Minna and Environs. J. Appl. Sci. Envir. Manage 13, 21–22.

Sbihi HM, Nehdi IA, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI. 2013. Bitter and sweet lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds and seed oils: A comparison study of their compositions and physicochemical properties. Indus. Crops Prod. 49, 573–579.

Su MH, Shih MC, Lin KH. 2014. Chemical composition of seed oils in native Taiwanese Camellia species. Food Chem. 156, 369–373. PMid:24629982

Tan CP, Che Man YB, Selamat J, Yusoff MSA. 2002. Comparative studies of oxidative stability of edible oils by differential scanning calorimetry and oxidative stability index methods. Food Chem. 76, 385–389.

Copyright (c) 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support