Grasas y Aceites, Vol 67, No 2 (2016)

Acidolysis of terebinth fruit oil with palmitic and caprylic acids in a recirculating packed bed reactor: optimization using response surface methodology


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0633152

D. Koçak Yanık
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gaziantep, Turkey

H. Keskin
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gaziantep, Turkey

S. Fadıloğlu
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gaziantep, Turkey

F. Göğüş
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gaziantep, Turkey

Abstract


The acidolysis reaction of terebinth fruit oil with caprylic and palmitic acid has been investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Lipozyme IM from Rhizomucormiehei) and carried out in recirculating packed bed reactor. The effects of reaction parameters have been analyzed using response surface methodology. Reaction time (3.5–6.5 h), enzyme load (10–20%), substrate flow rate (4–8 mL·min-1) and substrate mole ratios (Terebinth oil : Palmitic acid : Caprylic acid, 1:1.83:1.22–1:3.07:2.05) were evaluated. The optimum reaction conditions were 5.9 h reaction time, 10% enzyme load, 4 mL·min-1 substrate flow rate and 1:3.10:2.07 substrate mole ratio. The structured lipid obtained at these optimum conditions had 52.23% desired triacylglycerols and a lower caloric value than that of terebinth fruit oil. The melting characteristics and microstructure of the structured lipid were similar to those of commercial margarine fat extracts. The results showed that the structured lipid had the highest oxidative stability among the studied fats.

Keywords


Caprylic acid; Palmitic acid; Pistaciaterebinthus L.; Response surface methodology; Structured lipid

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Agar IT, Kaska N and Kafkas S. 1995. Characterization of lipids in Pistacia species grown in Turkey. Acta Horticulturae. 419, 417–422. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1995.419.69

Ahmadi L, Wright AJ, Marangoni AG. 2008. Chemical and enzymatic interesterification of tristearin/ triolein-rich blends: Microstructure and polymorphism. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 110, 1025–1034. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200800059

AOCS (1993).Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 4th Edn. American Oil Chemists' Society Press, Champaigne, IL (USA).

Arifin N, Soo-Peng K, Long K, Chin-Ping T, Yusoff MSA, Oi-Ming L. 2012. Modeling and optimization of Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed esterification of medium- and long-chain triacyglycerols (MLCT) using response surface methodology. Food Bioprocess Technol. 5, 216–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0325-5

Çiftçi ON, Fadılog˘lu S, Gög˘üs¸ F. 2009a. Conversion of olive pomace oil to cocoa butter-like fat in a packed-bed enzyme reactor. Bioresour. Technol. 100, 324–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.05.035 PMid:18606538

Çiftçi ON, Kowalski B, Fadılog˘lu S, Gög˘üs¸ F. 2009b. Effect of the addition of a cocoa butter–like fat enzymatically produced from olive pomace oil on the oxidative stability of cocoa butter. J. Food Sci. 74, 184–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01128.x PMid:19490323

Dobarganes MC, Velasco J, Dieffenbacher A. 2000. Determination of polar compounds, polimerized and oxidized triacylglycerols, and diacylglycerols in oils and fats. Pure Appl. Chem. 72, 1563–1575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/pac200072081563

Durmaz G, Gökmen V. 2011. Changes in oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and phytochemical composition of Pistacia terebinthus oil with roasting. Food Chem. 128, 410–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.044 PMid:25212149

Hamam F, Budge SM. 2010. Structured and specialty lipids in continuous packed column reactors: comparison of production using one and two enzyme beds. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 87, 385–394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1515-z

Khodadadi M, AzizS, St-Louis R,Kermasha S. 2013. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis and characterization of flaxseed oil-based structured lipids. J. Funct. Foods. 5, 424–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2012.11.015

Koh SP, Tan CP, Lai OM., Arifin N, Long K. 2010. Enzymatic synthesis of medium- and long- chain triacyglycerols (MLCT): optimization of process parameters using response surface methodology. Food Bioprocess Technol. 3, 288–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11947-008-0073-y

Koçak D, Keskin H, Fadılog˘lu S, Kowalski B and Gög˘üs¸ F. 2011. Characterization of terebinth fruit oil and optimization of acidolysis reaction with caprylic and stearic acids. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 88, 1531–1538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-011-1830-z

Koçak Yanık D, Keskin H, Fadılog˘lu S, Gög˘üs¸ F. 2013. Acidolysis reaction of terebinth fruit oil with palmitic and caprylic acids to produce low caloric spreadable structured lipid. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 90, 999–1009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-013-2250-z

List GR, King JW (2006) Hydrogenation of lipids for use in food. In: Modifying Lipids for Use in Food. Eds. Gunstone FD. Wood head Publishing Limited and CRC Press, LLC (England) pp. 173–200.

Livesey G. 1984. The energy equivalents of ATP and the energy values of food proteins and fats. Brit. J. Nutr. 51, 15–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN19840005 PMid:6689941

Osborn H, Akoh C. 2002. Structured lipids: Novel fats with medical, nutraceutical, and food applications. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. 1, 110–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2002.tb00010.x

Özcan M. 2004. Characteristics of fruit and oil of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) growing wild in Turkey. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84, 517–552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1632

Pardauil JJR, Souz LKC, Molfetta FA, Zamian JR, Rocha Filho GN, Da Costa CEF. 2011. Determination of the oxidative stability by DSC of vegetable oils from the Amazonian area. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 5873–5877. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.02.022 PMid:21411317

Taguchi H, Nagao T, Watanabe H, Onizawa K, Matsuo N, Tokimitsu I, Itakura H. 2001. Energy value and digestibility of dietary oil containing mainly 1,3-diacylglycerol are similar to those of triacylglycerol. Lipids. 36, 379–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-001-0731-7 PMid:11383689

Tan CP, Che Man YB, Jinap S, Yusoff MSA. 2002. Comparative studies of oxidative stability of edible oils by differential scanning calorimetry and oxidative stability index methods. Food Chem. 76, 385–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00272-2

Tieko Nassu, R, Guaraldo Gonçalves LA. 1995. Solid fat content determination: Comparison between pNMR and DSC techniques. Grasas Aceites. 46, 337–343. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.1995.v46.i6.949

Topçu G, Ay M, Bilici A, Sarıkürkçü C, Öztürk M, Ulubelen A . 2007. A new flavones from antioxidant extracts of Pistacia terebinthus. Food Chem. 103, 816–822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.028

Xu X, Balchen S, Høy C-E, Adler-Nissen J. 1998. Production of specific-structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification in a pilot continuous enzyme bed reactor. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 75, 1573–1579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0096-6

Xu X., Fomuso LB, Akoh CC. 2000. Modification of menhaden oil by enzymatic acidolysis to produce structured lipids: optimization by response surface design in a packed bed reactor. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 77, 171–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-000-0027-3

Yang T, Freukilde MB, Xu X. 2003. Applications of immobilized thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in interesterification. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 80, 881–887. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-003-0789-7

Zhao TT, Kim BH, Hong SI, Yoon SW, Kim CT, Kim Y, Kim IH. 2012. Lipase-catalyzed production of pinolenic acid concentrate from pine nut oil using a recirculating packed bed reactor. J. Food Sci. 77, 267–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02562.x PMid:22309126




Copyright (c) 2016 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es