Grasas y Aceites, Vol 67, No 2 (2016)

Effect of fat replacement by olive oil on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and tocopherol content of pâté


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0629152

R. Domínguez
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Spain

R. Agregán
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Spain

A. Gonçalves
Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal

J. M. Lorenzo
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Spain

Abstract


The present study investigates the effects of olive oil when used as back fat replacers on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content of p.t.. The replacement of back fat by olive oil at 50 and 100% did not affect the moisture, fat or protein contents, while it increased yellowness. According to texture parameters, reformulated p.t. presented lower values for hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The use of olive oil significantly (P < 0.05) affected the fatty acid content. The amount of MUFA increased, while the content of SFA and PUFA decreased as the back fat was replaced by olive oil. The replacement of fat resulted in an improvement in all nutritional indexes. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes decreased while the h/H ratio increased with fat replacement. At the same time, the content of α-tocopherol increased and the amount of cholesterol decreased with the addition of olive oil. Therefore, olive oil provides p.t. with high levels of C18:1n9c and MUFA, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and reduces cholesterol levels. As a general conclusion, the replacement of back fat by olive oil allows us to obtain a healthier product.

Keywords


Fat replacement; Nutritional value; Olive oil; Pâté

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Asuming-Bediako N, Jaspal MH, Hallett K, Bayntun J, Baker A, Sheard PR. 2014. Effects of replacing pork backfat with emulsified vegetable oil on fatty acid composition and quality of UK-style sausages. Meat Sci. 96, 187–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.06.031 PMid:23906753 Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Phys. 37, 911–917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/o59-099 PMid:13671378

Bloukas JG, Paneras ED, Fournitzis GC. 1997. Effect of replacing pork backfat with olive oil on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 45, 133–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(96)00113-1

Caporaso N, Savarese M, Paduano A, Guidone G, De Marco E, Sacchi R. 2015. Nutritional quality assessment of extra virgin olive oil from the Italian retail market: Do natural antioxidants satisfy EFSA health claims?. J. Food Compos. Anal. 40, 154–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2014.12.012

Chang SJ, Chow CKJ. 2008. Consumption of fatty acids, in Chow CK (Ed.) Fatty acids in foods and their health application. 3rd edn. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 545–559.

Choi YS, Choi JH, Han DJ, Kim HY, Lee MA, Jeong JY, Chung HJ, Kim CJ. 2010. Effects of replacing pork back fat with vegetable oils and rice bran fiber on the quality of reducedfat frankfurters. Meat Sci. 84, 557–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.10.012 PMid:20374824

Choi YS, Choi JH, Han DJ, Kim HY, Lee MA, Kim HW, Jeong JY, Kim CJ. 2009. Characteristics of low-fat meat emulsion systems with pork fat replaced by vegetable oils and rice bran fiber. Meat Sci. 82, 266–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.01.019 PMid:20416740

Delgado-Pando G, Cofrades S, Rodr.guez-Salas L, Jiménez- Colmenero F. 2011. A healthier oil combination and konjac gel as functional ingredients in low-fat pork liver p.t. Meat Sci. 88, 241–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.12.028 PMid:21239120

Domínguez R, Borrajo P, Lorenzo JM. 2015. The effect of cooking methods on nutritional value of foal meat. J. Food Compos. Anal. 43, 61–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2015.04.007

Echarte M, Conchillo A, Ansorena D, Astiasar.n I. 2004. Evaluation of the nutritional aspects and cholesterol oxidation products of pork liver and fish pates. Food Chem. 86, 47–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.08.027

EFSA. 2010. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin E and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 160, 162, 1947), maintenance of the normal function of the immune system (ID 161, 163), maintenance of normal bone (ID 164), maintenance of normal teeth (ID 164), maintenance of normal hair (ID 164), maintenance of normal skin (ID 164), maintenance of normal nails (ID 164), maintenance of normal cardiac function (ID 166), maintenance of normal vision by protection of the lens of the eye (ID 167), contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 182, 183), regener-ation of the reduced form of vitamin C (ID 203), maintenance of normal blood circulation (ID 216) and maintenance of normal a scalp (ID 2873) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061. EFSA J. 8, 1816.

EFSA. 2011. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the replacement of mixtures of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) as present in foods or diets with mixtures of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and/or mixtures of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 621, 1190, 1203, 2906, 2910, 3065) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061. EFSA J. 9, 2069.

EU Reg. No 432/2012 of 16 May 2012 establishing a list of permitted health claims made on foods, other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and health.

Fernández M, Ordo.ez JA, Cambero I, Santos C, Pin C, de la Hoz L. 2007. Fatty acid composition of selected varieties of Spanish dry ham related to their nutritional implications. Food Chem. 101, 107–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.006

Foegeding EA, Ramsey SR. 1986. Effect of Gums on Low- Fat Meat Batters. J. Food Sci. 51, 33–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1986.tb10829.x

Hu FB, Manson JE, Willett WC. 2001. Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review. J. Am. Coll Nutr. 20, 5–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2001.10719008 PMid:11293467

Huang CL, Sumpio BE. 2008. Olive oil, the Mediterranean diet, and cardiovascular health. J. Am.Coll Surgeons. 207, 407–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2008.02.018 PMid:18722947

IBM Corp. 2010. IBM SPSS statistics for Windows, version 19.0. New York, NY, USA: IBM Corp.

ISO 1973. Determination of total fat content, ISO 1443:1973 standard. International standards meat and meat products. Genève, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

ISO 1978. Determination of nitrogen content, ISO 937:1978 standard. International standards meat and meat products. Genève, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

ISO 1997. Determination of moisture content, ISO 1442:1997 standard. International standards meat and meat products. Genève, Switzerland: International Organization for

Jiménez-Colmenero, F. 2007. Healthier lipid formulation approaches in meat-based functional foods. Technological options for replacement of meat fats by non-meat fats. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 18, 567–578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2007.05.006

López-Miranda J, Pérez-Martínez P, Pérez-Jim.nez F. 2006. Health benefits of monounsaturated fatty acids, in Williams C., & Buttriss J. (Ed.) Improving the Fat Content of Foods Cambridge. Woodhead Publishing Limited, 71-106.

Lorenzo JM, Pateiro M. 2013. Influence of fat content on physico-chemical and oxidative stability of foal liver p.t. Meat Sci. 95, 330–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.04.045 PMid:23747626

Lorenzo JM, Pateiro M, Font.n MCG, Carballo J. 2014. Effect of fat content on physical, microbial, lipid and protein changes during chill storage of foal liver p.t. Food Chem. 155, 57–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.038 PMid:24594154

Martín D, Ruiz J, Kivikari R, Puolanne E. 2008. Partial replacement of pork fat by conjugated linoleic acid and/or olive oil in liver p.t.s: Effect on physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability. Meat Sci. 80, 496–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.01.014 PMid:22063358

Martin D, Antequera T, Muriel E, Perez-Palacios T, Ruiz J. 2009. Liver p.t. from pigs fed conjugated linoleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids. Eur. Food Res.Technol. 228, 749–758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-0986-8

Morales-Irigoyen EE, Severiano-P.rez P, Rodr.guez-Huezo ME, Totosaus A. 2012. Textural, physicochemical and sensory properties compensation of fat replacing in pork liver pate incorporating emulsified canola oil. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 18, 413–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1082013211428218 PMid:22773543

Muguerza E, Gimeno O, Ansorena D, Bloukas JG, Astiasarán I. 2001. Effect of replacing pork backfat with pre-emulsified olive oil on lipid fraction and sensory quality of Chorizo de Pamplona—a traditional Spanish fermented sausage. Meat Sci. 59, 251–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00075-4

Muguerza E, Fista G, Ansorena D, Astiasaran I, Bloukas JG. 2002. Effect of fat level and partial replacement of pork backfat with olive oil on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 61, 397–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00210-8

Ockerman HW. 1989. Sausage and processed meat formulations. Ohio, USA: Van NostrandReinhold.

Polak T, Zlender B, Lusnic M, Gasperlin L. 2011. Effects of coenzyme Q 10, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on oxidation of cholesterol in chicken liver p.t. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 44, 1052–1058. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.10.010

Reboredo-Rodríguez P, González-Barreiro C, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J. 2014. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in northwestern Spain. Food Chem. 164, 418–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.043 PMid:24996353

Rodríguez-Carpena JG, Morcuende D, Est.vez M. 2011. Partial Replacement of Pork Back-Fat by Vegetable Oils in Burger Patties: Effect on Oxidative Stability and Texture and Color Changes during Cooking and Chilled Storage. J. Food Sci. 76, C1025-C1031. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02327.x PMid:22417539

Rodríguez-Carpena JG, Morcuende D, Est.vez M. 2012. Avocado, sunflower and olive oils as replacers of pork back-fat in burger patties: Effect on lipid composition, oxidative stability and quality traits. Meat Sci. 90, 106–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.06.007 PMid:21703779

Salcedo-Sandoval L, Cofrades S, Ruiz-Capillas C, Jiménez- Colmenero F. 2014. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system. Meat Sci. 98, 795–803. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.07.034 PMid:25150632

Sampaio GR, Castellucci CM, Silva MEMP, Torres EA. 2004. Effect of fat replacers on the nutritive value and acceptability of beef frankfurters. J. Food Compos. Anal. 17, 469–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.03.016

Sánchez-Zapata E, Sayas-Barber. E, Pérez-Alvarez JA, Fern.ndez-L.pez J. 2013. The Effect of Replacing Water with Tiger Nut Milk (Horchata) Liquid Coproduct on the Physicochemical Properties and Oxidation (Haemopigments and Lipids) of a Cooked Pork Liver Meat Product. Food Technol. Biotech. 51, 422–428.

Severini C, De Pilli T, Baiano, A. 2003. Partial substitution of pork backfat with extra-virgin olive oil in 'salami'products: effects on chemical, physical and sensorial quality. Meat Sci. 64, 323–331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00204-8

Simopoulos AP. 2004. Omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acid ratio and chronic diseases. Food Rev. Int. 20, 77–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/FRI-120028831

UK Department of Health 1994. Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease. Report on health and social subject no. 46. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Ulbricht TLV, Southgate DAT. 1991. Coronary heart disease: Seven dietary factors. Lancet. 338, 985–992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)91846-M

Youssef MK, Barbut S. 2010. Physicochemical effects of the lipid phase and protein level on meat emulsion stability, texture, and microstructure. J. Food Sci. 75, S108–S114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01475.x PMid:20492255




Copyright (c) 2016 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es