Grasas y Aceites, Vol 68, No 2 (2017)

Production of structured lipid with a low omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio by enzymatic interesterification


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0565161

H. Ilyasoglu
Gumushane University, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Turkey

Abstract


A structured lipid (SL) constituting omega fatty acids was synthesized by using linseed and grape seed oils as substrates via a lipase-catalyzed reaction. Lipozyme® TL IM was used as a biocatalyst. Good quadratic models predicting the incorporation of omega fatty acids were achieved via the Response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions for targeted omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio (2:1) were obtained at a substrate molar ratio 1.4, time 8.4 h, and enzyme amount 6.4%. The SL contained linoleic acid (43 g 100g-1), which was mainly located in the sn-2 position (40 g 100g-1). ?-Linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid at the sn-2 position were 22 g 100g-1, and 11 g 100g-1, respectively. The oxidative stability of the SL, and SL with antioxidants was also investigated. The produced SL may be proposed as a source of a balanced intake of omega fatty acids and an ingredient in functional food formulations.

Keywords


Enzymatic interesterification; Omega-3; Omega-6; Oxidative stability; Structured lipid

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Araujo MEMB, Campos PRB, Noso TM, Alberic RM, Silva Cunha IB, Simas RS, Eberlin MN, Oliveria Carvalho P. 2011. Response surface modeling of the production structured lipids from soybean oils using Rhizomucor miehei lipase. Food Chem. 127, 28–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.072

Gomez-Candela C, Lopez LMB, Kohen VL. 2011. Importance of a balanced omega 6/omega 3 ratio for the maintenance of health. Nutritional recommendations. Nutr. Hosp. 6, 323–329.

Gö?üs U, Chris S. 2010. n-3 omega fatty acids: a review of current knowledge. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45, 417–436.

Hamam F, Shahidi F. 2005a. Structured lipids from high-laurate canola oil and long chain omega-3 fatty acids. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82, 731–736. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-005-1135-9

Hamam F, Shahidi F. 2005b. Enzymatic incorporation of capric acid into single cell oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid and oxidative stability of the resultant structured lipid. Food Chem. 91, 583–591. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.024

Hita E, Robles A, Camacho B, Ramirez A, Esteban L, Jimenez MJ, Munio MM, Gonzalez PA, Molina E. 2007. Production of structured triacylglycerols (STAG) rich in docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in position 2 by acidolysis of tuna catalyzed by lipases. Process Biochem. 42, 415–422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2006.09.023

Khodadadi M, Kermasha S. 2014. Modeling lipase-catalyzed interesterification of flaxseed oil and tricaprylin for the synthesized structured lipids. J. Mol. Catal. B Enzym. 102, 33–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2014.01.011

Kolakowska, A. 2003. Lipid oxidation in food systems. Sikorski ZE and Kolakowska A (Ed). In: Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Lipids. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, USA. pp. 19–20.

Lee JH, Shin JA, Lee JH, Lee, TI. 2004. Production of lipase-catalyzed structured lipids from safflower oil with conjugated linoleic acid and oxidation studies with rosemary extract. Food Res. Int. 37, 967–974. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2004.06.005

Lee JH, Lee KT, Akoh CC, Chung SK, Kim MR. 2006. Antioxidant evaluation and oxidative stability of structured lipids from extra virgin olive oil and conjugated linoleic acid. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 54, 5416–5421. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0603735 PMid:16848526

Maqsood S, Benjakul, S. 2010. Comparative studies of four phenolic compounds on in vitro antioxidant activity and the preventive effect on lipid oxidation of fish oil emulsion and fish mince. Food Chem. 119, 123–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.06.004

Mitra K, Lee JH, Lee KT, Kim SA. 2010a. Production tactic and physiochemical properties of low w6⁄w3 ratio structured lipid synthesised from perilla and soybean oil. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45, 1321–1329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02132.x

Mitra K, Kim SA, Lee JH, Choi SW, Lee KT. 2010b. Production and characterization of ?-linolenic acid enriched structured lipids from lipase-catalyzed interesterification. Food Sci. Bioctechnol. 19, 57–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-010-0008-z

Mitra K, Shin JA, Lee JH, Kim SA, Hong ST, Sung CK, Xue CL, Le KT. 2012. Studies of reaction variables for lipase-catalyzed production of alpha-linolenic acid enriched structured lipid and oxidative stability with antioxidant. J. Food Sci. 77, C39-C45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02464.x PMid:22122200

Rao R, Manohar B, Sambaiah K, Lokesh BR. 2002. Enzymatic acidolysis in hexane to produce n-3 or n-6 FA-enriched structured lipids from coconut oil: Optimization of reactions by response surface methodology. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 79, 895–890. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0574-7

Sharma M, Rastogi NK, Lokesh BR. 2009. Synthesis of structured lipid with balanced omega-3: Omega-6 ratio by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis reaction: Optimization of reaction using response surface methodology. Process Biochem. 44, 1284–1288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2009.07.005

Shimada Y, Suenaga M, Sugihara A, Nakai S, Tominiga Y. 1999. Continuous production of structured lipid containing g-linolenic and caprylic acids by immobilized Rhizopus delemar lipase. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 189–193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0217-x

Simopoulos AP. 2008. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp. Biol. Med. 233, 674–688. https://doi.org/10.3181/0711-MR-311 PMid:18408140

Sultana B, Anwar F, Przybylski R. 2007. Antioxidant potential of Carnob extract for stabilization corn oil subjected to microwave heating, Food Chem. 104, 997–1005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.061

Taha FS, Wagdy SM, Singer FA. 2012. Comparision between antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts from different parts of peanut. Life Sci. J. 9 207–215.

Xu X, Mu H, Skands ARH, Hoy CE, Adler-Nissen J. 1999. Parameters affecting diacylglycerol formation during the production of specific-structured lipids by lipase-catalyzed reaction. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 175–181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0215-z

Willis WM, Marangoni AG. 1999. Assesment of lipase- and chemically catalyzed lipid modification strategies for the production of structured lipid. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 443–450. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0022-6

Yang D, Gan LJ, Shin JA, Kim S, Hong ST, Park SH. 2013. Antioxidative activities of ginkgo biloba extract on oil/water emulsion system prepared from an enzymatically modified lipid containing alpha-linolenic acid. J. Food Sci. 78, C43– C49. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.03010.x PMid:23278764

Zhang Y, Yang L, Zu Y, Chen X, Wang F, Liu F. 2010. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants during accelerated storage. Food Chem. 118, 656–662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.05.038

Zhaou H, Lu Z, Lu F, Bie X, Liu Z, Zeng X. 2006. Lipase catalyzed acidolysis of lard with caprylic acid to produce structured lipid. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 41, 1027-1032. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01160.x




Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es