Grasas y Aceites, Vol 68, No 3 (2017)

Influence of different irrigation and nitrogen levels on crude oil and fatty acid composition of maize (Zea mays L.)

M. Kaplan, H. Kale, K. Karaman, A. Unlukara



The effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer levels on the crude oil and fatty acid composition of maize cultivars was studied. Three levels of irrigation (50, 75 and 100% of field capacity) and nitrogen (100, 200 and 300 kg·ha-1) were used for treatment groups. After harvest, the crude oils were extracted and fatty acid profiles were determined by Gas Chromatography system. The study was repeated for two years and the interaction effects of fertilizer and irrigation were determined. Our results show that the crude oil content was affected positively by the fertilizer and the irrigation applications. As expected, the most abundant fatty acid was linoleic and the harvest year did not alter it. The highest linoleic acid content value was obtained with a 50% field capacity and 300 kg·ha-1 fertilizer treatment combination. In addition, fatty acid contents varied with the changing of interaction effects except for myristic and palmitic acid. Oleic acid was the second abundant fatty acid in the oil samples and the lowest oleic acid value was obtained with a 50% field capacity and 300 kg·ha-1 fertilizer treatment combination. Oleic acid content tended to increase with 75% field capacity but 100% field capacity treatment decreased in it.


Fatty acid profile; Fertilizer; Irrigation; Maize; Zea mays L.

Full Text:



Ali Q, Ashraf M, Anwar F. 2009. Physicochemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) plants. Grasas Aceites 60, 475–481.

Ali Q, Ashraf M, Anwar F. 2010. Seed Composition and Seed Oil Antioxidant Activity of Maize Under Water Stress. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 87, 1179–1187.

Ashraf M, Ali Q, Iqbal Z. 2006. Effect of nitrogen application rate on the content and composition of oil essential oil and minerals in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds. J. Sci. Food. Agric. 86, 871–876.

Ashgan Abou Gabal A, Amera Zaitoun F. 2015. Seed Oil Content and Fatty Acids Composition of Maize under Heat and Water Stress. Alexandria Sci. Exchange J. 36, 274-280.

Chilliard Y, Rouel J, Guillouet P. 2013. Goat alpha-s1 casein genotype interacts with the effect of extruded linseed feeding on milk fat yield, fatty acid composition and post-milking lipolysis. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 185, 140–149.

El-Deen E, Ahmed T. 1997. Influence of plant distance and some phosphorus fertilization sources on black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) plants. Assiut. J. Agric. Sci. 28, 39–56.

Ghassemi-Golezani K, Raei N, Raei Y. 2015. Effects of water deficit and nitrogen levels on grain yield and oil and protein contents of maize. Azarian J. Agric. 2, 46-50.

Kiani M, Gheysari M, Mostafazadeh-Fard B, Majidi MM, Karchani K, Hoogenboom G. 2016. Effect of the interaction of water and nitrogen on sunflower under drip irrigation in an arid region. Agr. Water. Manage. 171, 162–172.

Pandey RK, Maranville JW, Admou A. 2000. Deficit irrigation and nitrogen effects on maize in a Sahelian environment I. Grain yield and yield components. Agr. Water. Manage. 46, 1-13.

Pavlista AD, Hergert GW, Margheim JM, Isbell TA. 2016. Growth of spring camelina (Camelina sativa) under deficit irrigation in Western Nebraska. Ind. Crops. Prod. 83, 118–123.

Pavlista AD, Hergert GW, Margheim JM, Isbell TA. 2016. Growth of spring canola (Brassica napus) under deficit irrigation in Western Nebraska. Ind. Crops. Prod. 83, 635–640.

Ray JD, Fritschi FB, Heatherly LG, 2006. Large applications of fertilizer N at planting affects seed protein and oil concentration and yield in the Early Soybean Production System. Field. Crop. Res. 99, 67-74.

Sebei K, Cherie A, Boukhchina S, Kallel H. 2004. Correlations between polyunsaturated fatty acid and tocopherol contents during the maturation of rape seed (Brassica napus L.) submitted to different nitrogen rate. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse 81, 304–31.

Shao-Wen H, Gui-Fang S, Ji-Yun J, Ping H, Xiu-Fang W, Guo- Gang Z, Jia-Gui X, Kuan Z 2004. The effect of nitrogen levels on grain yield, protein, amino acid and fatty acid of high-oil maize. Sci. Agric. Sinica 2, 250–255.

Shahrokhnia MH, Sepaskhah AR. 2016. Effects of irrigation strategies, planting methods and nitrogen fertilization on yield, water and nitrogen efficiencies of safflower. Agr. Water Manage. 172, 18–30.

White PJ, Weber EJ, Johnson LA. 2003. Lipids of the kernel. Corn: Chemistry and technology, (Ed. 2), 355-405.

White PJ, Pollak LM, Duvick S. 2007. Improving the fatty acid composition of corn oil by using germplasm introgression. Lipid Technol. 19, 35-38.

Xing GS, Cui KR, Li J, Li YF, Wang ZX. 2001. Water stress and accumulation of ?-N-Oxalyl-L-?,?-diaminopropionic acid in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus). J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 216–220.

Yalcin H, Öztürk I, Tulukçu E, Sagdic O. 2011. Influence of the harvesting year and fertilizer on the fatty acid composition and some physicochemical properties of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) J. Verbr. Lebensm. 6, 197.

Yang HM, Zhang XY, Wang GX. 2004. Relationships between stomatal character, photosynthetic character and seed chemical composition in grass pea at different water availabilities. J. Agric. Sci. 142, 675–681.

Zhu S, Vivanco JM, Manter DK. 2016. Nitrogen fertilizer rate affects root exudation, the rhizosphere microbiome and nitrogen-use-efficiency of maize. Appl. Soil Ecol. 107, 324–333.

Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Spain (CC-by).

Contact us

Technical support