Grasas y Aceites, Vol 69, No 1 (2018)

Effect of carotenoids, extracted from dry tomato waste, on the stability and characteristics of various vegetable oils

V. Nour
Department of Horticulture & Food Science, University of Craiova, Romania

A. R. Corbu
Department of Horticulture & Food Science, University of Craiova, Romania

P. Rotaru
Department of Horticulture & Food Science, University of Craiova, Romania

I. Karageorgou
Department of Food Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Thessaly, Greece

S. Lalas
Department of Food Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Thessaly, Greece


In this study, various vegetable oils were enriched with carotenoids originating from dry tomato waste using ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and maceration. Analyses of total carotenoids, color and oxidative stability (determined by free radical scavenger activity, peroxide value, Rancimat method and DSC analysis) were carried out. Commercial oils without enrichment were used for comparison. The results showed that the carotenoid contents of the oils increased significantly by increasing incorporation of dry tomato waste. Also, maceration proved to extract significantly higher amounts of these compounds. In some oils the extraction of dry tomato waste improved their oxidative and thermal stability while in others it caused an increase in the peroxide value and a decrease in induction time. Finally, the color parameters of the oils were significantly influenced. Enriched oils could be a potential source of bioactive compounds and might have significant antioxidant activity when ingested as part of a dietary regime.


Carotenoids; Color; Extraction; Oxidative Stability; Tomato waste; Vegetable oils

Full Text:



Benakmoum A, Abbeddou S, Ammouche A, Kefalas P, Gerasopoulos D. 2008. Valorisation of low quality edible oil with tomato peel waste. Food Chem. 110, 684–690.

Bouayed J, Bohn T. 2010. Exogenous antioxidants – Double-edged swords in cellular redox state: Health beneficial effects at physiologic doses versus deleterious effects at high doses. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 3, 228–237.

Cheung SCM, Szeto YT, Benzie IFF. 2007. Antioxidant protection of edible oils. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 62, 39–42. PMid:17285359

Choe E, Min DB. 2006. Mechanisms and factors for edible oil oxidation. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. F 5, 169–186.

Fanciullino AL, Dhuique-Mayer C, Luro F, Casanova J, Morillon R, Ollitrault P. 2006. Carotenoid diversity in cultivated citrus is highly influenced by genetic factors. J. Agr. Food Chem. 54, 4397–4406. PMid:16756373

Fiedor J, Burda K. 2014. Potential role of carotenoids as antioxidants in human health and disease. Nutrients 6, 466–488. PMid:24473231 PMCid:PMC3942711

Gopala Krishna AG, Khatoon S, Babylatha R. 2005. Frying performance of processed rice bran oils. J. Food Lipids 12, 1–11.

Gouveia L, Nobre BP, Marcelo FM, Mrejen S, Cardoso MT, Palavra AF, Mendes RL. 2007. Functional food oil colored by pigments extracted from microalgae with supercritical CO2. Food Chem. 101, 717–723.

Hassanein MM, El-Shami SM, El-Mallah MH. 2003. Changes occurring in vegetable oils composition due to microwave heating. Grasas Aceites 54, 343–349.

Huang W, Xue A, Niu H, Jia Z, Wang JW. 2009. Optimised ultrasonic-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Folium eucommiae and evaluation of antioxidant activity in multi-test systems in vitro. Food Chem. 114, 1147–1154.

Jiménez P, García P, Bustamante A, Barriga A, Robert P. 2017. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying. Food Chem. 221, 123–129.

Juliano C, Cossu M, Alamanni MC, Piu L. 2005. Antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol: Mechanism of action and its effect on oxidative stability of pharmaceutical oils. Int. J. Pharmaceut. 299, 146–154. PMid:16005170

Jung MY, Min DB. 1990. Effects of a-, g-, and d-tocopherols on oxidative stability of soybean oil. J. Food Sci. 55, 1464–1465.

Kalantzakis G, Blekas G, Pegklidou K, Boskou D. 2006. Stability and radical scavenging activity of heated olive oil and other vegetable oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 108, 329–335.

Katsoyannos E, Gortzi O, Chatzilazarou Ar, Athanasiadis V, Tsaknis J, Lalas S. 2012. Evaluation of the suitability of low hazard surfactants for the separation of phenols and carotenoids from red-flesh orange juice and olive mill waste water using cloud point extraction. J. Sep. Sci. 35, 2665–2670. PMid:22887931

Lalas S, Gortzi O, Tsaknis J, Sflomos K. 2007. Irradiation effect on oxidative condition and tocopherol content of vegetable oils. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 8, 533–540. PMCid:PMC3714613

Lalas S, Tsaknis J. 2002. Extraction and identification of natural antioxidant from the seeds of Moringa oleifera tree variety of Malawi. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 79, 677–683.

Li Y, Fabiano-Tixier AS, Tomao V, Cravotto G, Chemat F. 2013. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids based on the bio-refinery concept using sunflower oil as an alternative solvent. Ultrason. Sonochem. 20, 12–18. PMid:22884112

Lianfu Z, Zelong L. 2008. Optimization and comparison of ultrasound/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of lycopene from tomatoes. Ultrason. Sonochem. 15, 731–737. PMid:18226944

Malheiro R, Casal S, Lamas H, Bento A, Pereira JA. 2012. Can tea extracts protect extra virgin olive oil from oxidation during microwave heating? Food Res. Int. 48, 148–154.

Martínez ML, Penci MC, Ixtaina V, Ribotta PD, Maestri D. 2013. Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of walnut oil under different storage conditions. Food Sci. Technol. 51, 44–50.

Mirabella N, Castellani V, Sala S. 2014. Current options for the valorization of food manufacturing waste: a review. J. Clean. Prod. 65, 28–41.

Moure A, Cruz JM, Franco D, Domínguez JM, Sineiro J, Domínguez H, Nú-ez MJ, Parajó JC. 2001. Review: Natural antioxidants from residual sources. Food Chem. 72, 145–171.

Shixian Q, Dai Y, Kakuda Y, Shi J, Mittal G, Yeung D, et al. 2005. Synergistic anti-oxidative effects of lycopene with other bioactive compounds. Food Rev. Int. 21, 295–311.

Taungbodhitham AK, Jones GP, Wahlqvist ML, Briggs DR. 1998. Evaluation of extraction method for the analysis of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables. Food Chem. 63, 577–584.

Toor RK, Savage GP. 2005. Antioxidant activity in different fractions of tomatoes. Food Res. Int. 38, 487–494.

Tsaknis J, Lalas S. 2005. Extraction and identification of natural antioxidant from Sideritis euboea (mountain tea). J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 6375–6381. PMid:16076121

Vagi E, Simandi B, Vasarhelyine KP, Daood H, Kery A, Doleschall F, Nagy B. 2007. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids, tocopherols and sitosterols from industrial tomato by-products. J. Supercrit. Fluid 40, 218–226.

Zhao L, Zhao G, Chen F, Wang Z, Wu J, Hu X. 2006. Different effects of microwave and ultrasound on the stability of (all-E)-Astaxanthin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 8346–8351. PMid:17032050

Zhang Y, Yang L, Zu Y, Chen X, Wang F, Liu F. 2010. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants during accelerated storage. Food Chem. 118, 656–662.

Zuorro A, Lavecchia R, Medici F, Piga L. 2013. Enzyme-assisted production of tomato seed oil enriched with lycopene from tomato pomace. Food Bioprocess Tech. 6, 3499–3509.

Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support