Grasas y Aceites, Vol 69, No 2 (2018)

Modeling of volatile and phenolic compounds and optimization of the process conditions for obtaining balanced extra virgin olive oils


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.1220172

A. M. Vidal
Center for Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment (CEAEMA). Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3). Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. University of Jaén, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3803-1876

S. Alcalá
Center for Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment (CEAEMA). Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3). Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. University of Jaén, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5172-0847

M. T. Ocaña
Center for Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment (CEAEMA). Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3). Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. University of Jaén, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6944-8178

A. De Torres
Center for Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment (CEAEMA). Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3). Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. University of Jaén, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4613-0279

F. Espínola
Center for Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment (CEAEMA). Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3). Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. University of Jaén, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9570-6297

M. Moya
Center for Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment (CEAEMA). Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3). Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. University of Jaén, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9820-396X

Abstract


The main objective of this paper is to obtain extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) which are balanced in volatile and phenolic compounds. An experimental design was performed and response surface methodology was applied. The factors for malaxation were: temperature 20-40 °C, time 30-90 min, and hole diameter of hammer-crusher 4.5-6.5 mm. The results show that high temperatures and small hole diameter must be used in order to obtain a higher content in phenolic compounds, while for volatile compounds a low temperature and large hole diameter must be used. The models predict that the best and more balanced EVOO are obtained with the hole diameter of greater size and a medium-low temperature. Thus, for a hammer-crusher hole diameter of 6.5 mm 337 and 356 mg/kg total HPLC phenols were obtained for malaxation temperature of 20 and 25 °C, respectively and, likewise, 12.7 and 11.5 mg/kg total LOX volatiles.

Keywords


Balanced olive oils; Oil mill; Phenolic compounds; Response Surface Methodology; Volatile compounds

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Angerosa F, Basti C. 2001. Olive oil volatile compounds from the lipoxygenase pathway in relation to fruit ripeness. Ital. J. Food Sci. 13, 421-428.

Angerosa F, Mostallino R, Basti C, Vito R. 2000. Virgin olive oil odour notes: their relationships with volatile compounds from the lipoxygenase pathway and secoiridoid compounds. Food Chem. 68, 283-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00189-2

Angerosa F, Servili M, Selvaggini R, Taticchi A, Esposto S, Montedoro G. 2004. Volatile compounds in virgin olive oil: occurrence and their relationship with the quality. J. Chromatogr. A 1054, 17-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(04)01298-1

Beauchamp GK, Keast RSJ, Morel D, Lin J, Pika J, Han Q, Lee CH, Smith AB, Breslin PAS. 2005. Phytochemistry: Ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil. Nature 437, 45-46. https://doi.org/10.1038/437045a PMid:16136122

Ben Brahim S, Marrakchi F, Gargouri B, Bouaziz M. 2015. Optimization of malaxing conditions using CaCO3 as a coadjuvant: A method to increase yield and quality of extra virgin olive oil cv. Chemlali. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 63, 243-252.

Box GEP, Hunter JS, Hunter WG. 2005. Statistics for Experimenters: Design, Innovation, and Discovery, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey, USA. PMCid:PMC1273458

Cicerale S, Lucas LJ, Keast RSJ. 2012. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic activities in extra virgin olive oil. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 23, 129-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2011.09.006 PMid:22000808

Clodoveo ML, Hbaieb RH, Kotti F, Mugnozza GS, Gargouri M. 2014. Mechanical Strategies to Increase Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Virgin Olive Oil by Modulating the Endogenous Enzyme Activities. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 13, 135-154. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12054

De Torres A, Espínola F, Moya M, Castro E. 2016. Composition of secoiridoid derivatives from Picual virgin olive oil using response surface methodology with regard to malaxation conditions, fruit ripening, and irrigation management. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 242, 1709-1718. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-016-2670-8

Espínola F, Moya M, Fernández DG, Castro E. 2009. Improved extraction of virgin olive oil using calcium carbonate as coadjuvant extractant. J. Food Eng. 92, 112-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.10.038

Espínola F, Moya M, Fernández DG, Castro E. 2011. Modelling of virgin olive oil extraction using response surface methodology. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 46, 2576-2583. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02786.x

Franco MN, Galeano-Díaz T, Sánchez J, De Miguel C, Martín- Vertedor D. 2014. Antioxidant capacity of the phenolic fraction and its effect on the oxidative stability of olive oil varieties grown in the southwest of Spain. Grasas Aceites 65, e004. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.051513

Fregapane G, Salvador MD. 2013. Production of superior quality extra virgin olive oil modulating the content and profile of its minor components. Food Res. Int. 54, 1907-1914. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.04.022

Gómez-Rico A, Inarejos-García AM, Salvador MD, Fregapane G. 2009. Effect of malaxation conditions on phenol and volatile profiles in olive paste and the corresponding virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra). J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 3587-3595. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf803505w PMid:19338278

Gómez-Rico A, Salvador MD, La Greca M, Fregapane G. 2006. Phenolic and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra) with regard to fruit ripening and irrigation management. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 7130-7136. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf060798r PMid:16968073

Inarejos-García AM, Fregapane G, Salvador MD. 2011. Effect of crushing on olive paste and virgin olive oil minor components. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 232, 441-451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-010-1406-4

Kalua CM, Allen MS, Bedgood DR, Bishop AG, Prenzler PD, Robards K. 2007. Olive oil volatile compounds, flavour development and quality: A critical review. Food Chem. 100, 273-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.059

Kalua CM, Bedgood DR, Bishop AG, Prenzler PD. 2006. Changes in volatile and phenolic compounds with malaxation time and temperature during virgin olive oil production. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 7641-7651. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061122z PMid:17002434

Luna G, Morales MT, Aparicio R. 2006. Characterisation of 39 varietal virgin olive oils by their volatile compositions. Food Chem. 98, 243-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.069

Ranalli A, Contento S, Schiavone C, Simone N. 2001. Malaxing temperature affects volatile and phenol composition as well as other analytical features of virgin olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 103, 228-238. https://doi.org/10.1002/1438-9312(200104)103:4<228::AID-EJLT228>3.0.CO;2-7

Ranalli A, Pollastri L, Contento S, Iannucci E, Lucera L. 2003. Effect of olive paste kneading process time on the overall quality of virgin olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 105, 57-67. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200390018

Rodis PS, Karathanos VT, Mantzavinou A. 2002. Partitioning of olive oil antioxidants between oil and water phases. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 596-601. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010864j PMid:11804535

Romero N, Saavedra J, Tapia F, Sepúlveda B, Aparicio R. 2016. Influence of agroclimatic parameters on phenolic and volatile compounds of Chilean virgin olive oils and characterization based on geographical origin, cultivar and ripening stage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 96, 583-592. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7127 PMid:25655098

Salas JJ, Sánchez J. 1999. The decrease of virgin olive oil flavor produced by high malaxation temperature is due to inactivation of Hydroperoxide lyase. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 809-812. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981261j PMid:10552370

Sanchez J, Salas JJ. 2003. Biogénesis del aroma del aceite de oliva, in Aparicio R, Harwood J. (Eds.) Manual del Aceite de Oliva. AMV Ediciones y Mundi-Prensa, Madrid (Spain), pp. 89-107. PMid:12797628

Scotece M, Conde J, Abella V, Lopez V, Pino J, Lago F, Smith AB, Gómez-Reino JJ, Gualillo O. 2015. New drugs from ancient natural foods. Oleocanthal, the natural occurring spicy compound of olive oil: a brief history. Drug Discov. Today 20, 406-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2014.10.017 PMid:25448758

Servili M, Selvaggini R, Esposto S, Taticchi A, Montedoro G, Morozzi G. 2004. Health and sensory properties of virgin olive oil hydrophilic phenols: agronomic and technological aspects of production that affect their occurrence in the oil. J. Chromatogr. A 1054, 113-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(04)01423-2

Tripoli E, Giammanco M, Tabacchi G, Di Majo D, Giammanco S, La Guardia M. 2005. The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health. Nutr. Res. Rev. 18, 98-112. https://doi.org/10.1079/NRR200495 PMid:19079898

Vázquez-Roncero A, Janer del Valle C, Janer del Valle ML. 1973. Determinación de los polifenoles totales del aceite de oliva. Grasas Aceites 24, 350-357.

Vekiari SA, Koutsaftakis A. 2002. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content. Grasas Aceites 53, 304-308. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2002.v53.i3.321

Zribi A, Gargouri B, Jabeur H, Rebaï A, Abdelhedi R, Bouaziz M. 2013. Enrichment of pan-frying refined oils with olive leaf phenolic-rich extract to extend the usage life. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 115, 1443-1453. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201300037




Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es