Grasas y Aceites, Vol 70, No 1 (2019)

Mid-infrared spectroscopic detection of sunflower oil adulteration with safflower oil

O. Uncu
Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Food Engineering, Turkey

B. Ozen
Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Food Engineering, Turkey

F. Tokatli
Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Food Engineering, Spain


The oil industry is in need of rapid analysis techniques to differentiate mixtures of safflower-sunflower oils from pure oils. The current adulteration detection methods are generally cumbersome and detection limits are questionable. The aim of this study was to test the capability of a mid-infrared spectroscopic method to detect the adulteration of sunflower oil with safflower oil compared to fatty acid analysis. Mid-infrared spectra of pure oils and their mixtures at the 10–60% range were obtained at 4000–650 cm-1 wavenumber and fatty acid profiles were determined. Data were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis techniques. The lowest level of detection was obtained with mid-infrared spectroscopy at 30% while the fatty acid profile could determine adulteration at around 60%. Adulteration levels were predicted successfully using PLS regression analysis of infrared data with R2 (calibration) = 0.96 and R2 (validation) = 0.93. As a rapid and minimum waste generating technique, mid-infrared spectroscopy could be a useful tool for the screening of raw material to detect safflower-sunflower oil mixtures.


Adulteration; Chemometrics; Mid-infrared spectroscopy; Safflower oil; Sunflower oil

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