Grasas y Aceites, Vol 71, No 1 (2020)

Effect of process variables on the yield and quality of jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) kernel oil from aqueous extraction

K. T. Magalhães
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lavras, Brazil

T. S. Tavares
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lavras, Brazil

T. M.C. Gomes
Department of Food Science, Federal University of Lavras, Brazil

C. A. Nunes
Department of Food Science, Federal University of Lavras, Brazil


The fruit from jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) has a kernel which is rich in oil, and has a pleasant smell that reminds one of coconut. It is rich in monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, in addition to bioactive compounds. In this work, the effect of process variables on the yield and quality of jerivá kernel oil from aqueous extraction was evaluated using response surface methodology. The variables pH, time and temperature influenced the yield and the quality of the oil. High pH and time, along with mild temperature were suitable conditions to extract jerivá kernel oil by aqueous extraction, but excessively high pH, temperature and time negatively impacted the oil’s quality. pH was the only variable that significantly influenced free acidity, with a decrease in free acidity with the increase in pH. On the other hand, the increase in pH, time and temperature increased the peroxide value, which limited some conditions for obtaining jerivá kernel oil by aqueous extraction. The optimal conditions were found to be an extraction at pH 12, 25 °C and 60 minutes, which resulted in a yield of 39%, free acidity of 0.2% and a peroxide value of 5.8 meqO2·kg-1. Aqueous extraction yielded more unsaturated oil than that extracted with hexane, in addition to a higher proportion of caproic, oleic and linoleic acids, thus improving its nutritional characteristics and health benefits, despite decreasing its oxidative stability.


Fatty acid; Lipid; Palm; Response surface methodology

Full Text:



Ali Asbi B, Wei LS, Steinberg MP. 1989. Effect of pH on the Kinetics of Soybean Lipoxygenase-1. J. Food Sci. 54, 1594-1600.

American Oil Chemists Society. Official methods and recommended praticces of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 4th ed. Champaign, USA, AOCS.

Barbosa MZB, Nogueira Júnior S, Freitas SM. 2008. Agricultura de alimentos X de energia: impacto nas cotações internacionais. Análises e Indicadores do Agronegócio 3, 1-5.

Campbell KA, Glatz CE, Johnson LA, Jung S, Moura JMN, Kapchie V, Murphu P. 2011. Advances in Aqueous Extraction Processing of Soybeans. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88, 449-465.

Chaiyasit W, Elias RJ, Mcclements DJ, Decker EA. 2007. Role of physical structures in bulk oils on lipid oxidation. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutrit. 47, 299-317. PMid:17453926

Coimbra MC, Jorge N. 2011. Characterization of the Pulp and Kernel Oils from Syagrus oleracea, Syagrus romanzoffiana, and Acrocomia aculeata. J. Food Sci. 76, C1156-61. PMid:22417579

Coimbra MC, Jorge N. 2012. Fatty acids and bioactive compounds of the pulps and kernels of Brazilian palm species, guariroba (Syagrus oleraces), jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) and macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata). J. Sci. Food Agric. 92, 679-684. PMid:21922463

Falasca SL, Miranda del Fresno C, Ulberich A. 2012. Possibilities for growing queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana) in Argentina as a biodiesel producer under semi-arid climate conditions. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 37, 14843-14848.

Garcés R, Martínez-Force E, Venegas-Calerón M, Salas JJ. 2017. Oils and fats on food: is it possible to have a healthy diet? Grasas Aceites 68, e200.

Ghorbanzadeh R, Rezaei K. 2017. Optimization of an Aqueous Extraction Process for Pomegranate Seed Oil. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 94, 1491-1501.

Hanmoungjai P, Pyle L, Niranjan K. 2000. Extraction of rice bran oil using aqueous media. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 75, 348-35.<348::AID-JCTB233>3.0.CO;2-P

Jiao J, Li ZG, Gai QY, Li XJ, Wei FY, Fu YJ, Ma W. 2014. Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from pumpkin seeds and evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions and antioxidant activities. Food Chem. 147, 17-24. PMid:24206680

Khoei M, Chekin F. 2016. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil. Food Chem. 194, 503-507. PMid:26471585

Khuwijitjaru P, Adachi S, Matsuno R. 2002. Solubility of saturated fatty acids in water at elevated temperatures. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66, 1723-6. PMid:12353634

Khuwijitjaru P, Kimura Y, Matsuno R, Adachi S. 2004. Solubility of Oleic and Linoleic Acids in Subcritical Water. Food. Sci. Technol. Res. 10, 261-263.

Kim JY, Bora Y, Chankyu L, Seo-Yeong G, Mi-Ja K, Jaehwan L. 2016. Effects of pH on the rates of lipid oxidation in oil-water system. Appl. Biol. Chem. 59, 157-161.

Kobelnik M, Cassimiro DL, Dias DS, Ribeiro CA, Crespi MS. 2011. Thermal behavior of jerivá oil (Syagrus romanzoffiana). J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 106, 711-715.

Lescano CH, Oliveira IP, Lima FF, Baldivia DS, Justi PN, Cardoso CAL, Raposo Júnior JL, Sanjinez-Argandoña EJ. 2018. Nutritional and chemical characterizations of fruits obtained from Syagrus romanzoffiana, Attalea dubia, Attalea phalerata and Mauritia flexuosa. J. Food Meas. Charact. 12, 1284-1294.

Li P, Gasmalla MAA, Zhang W, Liu J, Bing R, Yang R. 2016. Effects of roasting temperatures and grinding type on the yields of oil and protein obtained by aqueous extraction processing. J. Food Eng. 173, 15-24.

Ludikhuyze L, Indrawati I, Van Den Broeck C, Weemaes C, Hendrickx M. 1998. Effect of Combined Pressure and Temperature on Soybean Lipoxygenase. 1. Influence of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors on Isobaric?Isothermal Inactivation Kinetics. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 4074?4080.

Mat Yusoff M, Gordon MH, Ezeh O, Niranjan K. 2016. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil. Food Chem. 211, 400-408. PMid:27283648

Moreira MAC, Payret Arrúa ME, Antunes AC, Fiuza TER, Costa BJ, Weirich Neto PH, Antunes SRM. 2013. Characterization of Syagrus romanzoffiana oil aiming at biodiesel production. Ind. Crops. Prod. 48, 57-60.

Nikiforidis CV, Kiosseoglou V. 2009. Aqueous Extraction of Oil Bodies from Maize Germ (Zea mays) and Characterization of the Resulting Natural Oil-in-Water Emulsion. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 5591-5596. PMid:19469559

Nunes CA, Freitas MP, Pinheiro ACM, Bastos SC. 2012. Chemoface: a novel free user-friendly interface for chemometrics. J. Brazil. Chem. Soc. 23, 2003-2010.

Pierezana L, Cabral MRP, Neto DM, Stropa JM, Oliveira LCS, Scharf DR, Simionatto EL, Silva RCL, Simionatto E. 2015. Chemical composition and crystallization temperatures of esters obtained from four vegetable oils extracted from seeds of Brazilian Cerrado plants. Quím. Nova 38, 328-332.

Rosenthal A, Pyle DL, Niranjan K. 1998. Simultaneous Aqueous Extraction of Oil and Protein from Soybean: Mechanisms for Process Design. Food Bioprod. Process. 76, 224-230.

Sun M, Xu X, Zhang Q, Xinrui, Wu J, Dong M. 2018. Ultrasonic-assisted Aqueous Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Oil from Clanis bilineata. J. Oil. Sci. 67, 151-165. PMid:29367478

Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support