Grasas y Aceites, Vol 71, No 3 (2020)

Study of water deficit conditions and beneficial microbes on the oil quality and agronomic traits of canola (Brassica napus L.)

H. Keshavarz
Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, Islamic Republic of


Water deficit stress is one of the major limiting factors that adversely affect plant growth and yield production. Some rhizosphere bacteria are known to promote plant growth in such stressful conditions. To study the response of quantifying canola growth, yield and yield components, to root colonization by two spe­cies of mycorrhizal fungi, a two-year field experiment was conducted at the research farm of Zanjan University. The main plot conditions were irrigation at 85% (S1), 70% (S2) and 55% (S3) of field capacity which were defined as no stress, mild and severe stress. The subplot treatments included three levels of mycorrhizal inoculation: non inoculation (control), G. Mosseae and G. Intraradices. The results showed that regardless of water deficit stress, colonized plants produced more biomass, seed and oil yield than non inoculated plants. Water deficit stress reduced the RWC and oil percentage of the seeds, although mycorrhizal improved these traits. Water deficit strikingly decreased the linoleic acid content in the seeds in contrast with increased stearic, oleic, arachidic and linolenic acids in the canola seeds. The presence of bacteria increased the seed oil percentage, oleic and linoleic contents. However, it decreased arachidic, particularly when the plants were subjected to water deficit stress.


Drought; Mycorrhizal Symbiosis; Oil Yield; Rapeseed; Unsaturated Fatty Acid

Full Text:



Adesemoye AO, Ugoji EO. 2009. Evaluating Pseudomonas aeru­ginosa as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in West Africa. Arch. Phytopathol. Plant. Prot. 42, 188–200.

Ahemad M, Kibret M. 2014. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: current perspective. King. Saud. Univ. Sci. 26, 1–20.

Anjum S, Xie X, Wang L, Saleem M, Man C, Lei W. 2011. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. J. Afr. Agric. Res. 6, 2026–2032.

Arora NK, Kang SC, Maheshwari DK. 2001. Isolation of sider­ophore-producing strains of Rhizobium meliloti and their biocontrol potential against Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut. Curr. Sci. 81 (6), 673–677.

Arvin P, Vafabakhsh J, Mazaheri D, Noormohamadi Gh, Azizi M. 2012. Study of Drought Stress and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Yield, Yield Components and Seed Oil Content of Different Cultivars and Species of Brassica Oilseed Rape. Ann. Biol. Res. 3 (9), 4444–4451.

Aslam MN, Nelson MN, Kailis SG, Bayliss KL, Speijeres J, Cowling WA. 2009. Canola oil increases in polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreases in oleic acid in drought-stressed Mediterranean-type environments. Plant Breeding. 128, 348–355.

Banchio E, Bogino PC, Zygadlo J, Giordano W. 2008. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve growth and essen­tial oil yield in Origanum majorana L. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 36, 766–771.

Baux A, Hebeisen T, Pellet D. 2008. Effects of minimal tem­peratures on low-linolenic rapeseed oil fatty acid composi­tion. Eur. J. Agron. 29, 102–107.

Bouwmeester HJ, Roux C, Lopez-Raez JA, Becard G. 2007. Rhizosphere communication of plants, parasitic plants and AM fungi. Trends. Plant. Sci. 12, 224–230.

Budge SM, Barry C. 2019. Determination of squalene in edible oils by transmethylation and GC analysis. MethodsX. 6, 15–21.

Casanovas EM, Barassi CA, Sueldo RJ. 2002. Azospirillum inoculation mitigates water stress effects in maize seedlings. Cereal. Res. Commun. 30, 343–350.

Chen J, Xu W, Velten J, Xin Z, Stout J. 2012. Characterization of maize inbred lines for drought and heat tolerance. J. Soil. Water. Conserv. 67, 354–364.

Cohen AC, Travaglia CN, Bottini R, Piccoli PN. 2009. Participation of abscisic acid and gibberellins produced by endophytic Azospirillum in the alleviation of drought effects in maize. Botanique 87, 455–462.

Creus CM, Sueldo RJ, Barassi CA. 2004. Water relations and yield in Azospirillum-inoculated wheat exposed to drought in the field. Can. J. Bot. 82, 273–281.

Eyni-Nargeseh H, AghaAlikhani M, Shirani Rad AH, Mokhtassi-Bidgoli A, Modarres Sanavy SAM. 2020. Late season deficit irrigation for water-saving: selection of rape­seed (Brassica napus) genotypes based on quantitative and qualitative features. Arch. Agron. Soil. Sci. 66 (1), 126–137.

Figueiredo MFV, Burity HA, Martínez CR, Chanway CP. 2008. Alleviation of drought stress in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by co-inoculation with Paenibacillus polymyxa and Rhizobium tropici. Appl. Soil Ecol. 40, 182–188.

Goksoy AT, Demirb AO, Turana ZM, Dagustu N. 2004. Responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to full and limited irrigation at different growth stages. Field Crop Res. 87, 167–178.

Gunasekera CP, Martin LD, Siddique KHM, Walton GH. 2006. Genotype by environment interactions of Indian mus­tard (Brassica juncea L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) in Mediterranean-type environments II. Oil and protein concentrations in seed. Eur. J. Agron. 25, 3–21.

Huang J, Yu H, Guan X, Wang G, Guo R. 2016. Accelerated dryland expansion under climate change. Nat. Clim. Change. 6, 166–171.

Kaushal M, Wani SP. 2016. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobac­teria: drought stress alleviators to ameliorate crop produc­tion in drylands. Ann. Microbiol. 66, 35–42.

Keshavarz H, Modarres-Sanavy SAM, Mahdipour Afra M. 2018. Organic and Chemical Fertilizer Affected Yield and Essential Oil of Two Mint Species. J. Essent Oil. Bear. Pl. 21 (6), 1674–1681.

Kumara A, Sharma S, Mishra S. 2009. Effect of alkalinity on growth performance of Jatropha curcas inoculated with PGPR and AM fungi. Journal. Phytol. 1 (3), 177–184.

Mantelin S, Touraine B. 2004. Plant growth-promoting rhizo­bacteria and nitrate availability: impacts on root develop­ment and nitrate uptake. J. Exp. Bot. 55, 27–34.

Martínez-Ballesta C, Moreno D, Carvajal M. 2013. The Physiological Importance of Glucosinolates on Plant Response to Abiotic Stress in Brassica. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, 11607–11625.

Mokhtassi-Bidgoli A, AghaAlikhani M, Nassiri-Mahallati M, Zand E, Gonzalez-Andujar JL, Azari A. 2013. Agronomic performance, seed quality and nitrogen uptake of Descurainia sophia in response to different nitrogen rates and water regimes. Ind. Crop. Prod. 44, 583- 592.

Nazeri P, Shirani Rad AH, ValadAbadi SA, Mirakhori M, Hadidi Masoule E. 2018. Effect of sowing dates and late season water deficit stress on quantitative and qualitative traits of canola cultivars. Outlook. Agr. 47 (4), 291–297.

Pereyra MA, Garcia P, Colabelli MN, Barassi CA, Creus CM. 2012. A better water status in wheat seedlings induced by Azospirillum under osmotic stress is related to mor­phological changes in xylem vessels of the coleoptile. Appl. Soil. Ecol. 53, 94–97.

Qian P, Schoenau JJ, Karamanos RE. 1994. Simultaneous extraction of available phosphorus and potassium with a new soil test: A modification of Kelowna extrac­tion. Commun. Soil Sci. Plan. 25, 627–635.

Rahdari P, Hoseini SM. 2012. Drought stress. A review. Int. J. Agron. Plant Prod. 3, 443–446.

Rojas-Tapias D, Moreno-Galván A, Pardo-Díaz S, Obando M, Rivera D, Bonilla R. 2012. Effect of inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on amelioration of saline stress in maize (Zea mays). Appl. Soil Ecol. 61, 264–272.

Safavi Fard N, Heidari Sharif Abad H, Shirani Rad AH, Majidi Heravan E, Daneshian J. 2018. Effect of drought stress on qualitative characteristics of canola cultivars in winter cul­tivation. Industrial Crops and Products 114, 87–92.

SAS Institute Inc. 2002. The SAS System for Windows, Release 9.0. Cary, NC, USA: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute.

Steen E, Kang Y, Bokinsky G, Hu Zh, Schirmer A, McClure A, Cardayre S, Keasling J. 2010. Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass. Nature 463, 559–562.

Verma JP, Yadav J, Tiwari NK, Lavakush SV. 2010. Impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on crop production. Int. J. Agric. Res. 5, 954–983.

Walkley A, Black IA. 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and proposed modifi­cation of the chromic acid tritation method. Soil Sci. 37, 29–38.

Yamamuro C, Zhu JK, Yang Z. 2016. Epigenetic Modifications and Plant Hormone Action. Mol. Plant. 9, 57–70.

Zhang M, Barg R, Yin M, Gueta-Dahan Y, Leikin-Frenkel A, Salts Y, Shabtai S, Ben-Hayyim G. 2005. Modulated fatty acid desaturation via overexpression of two distinct omega-3 desaturases differentially alters tolerance to vari­ous abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco cells and plants. Plant J. 44 (3), 361–371.

Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support