Grasas y Aceites, Vol 71, No 4 (2020)

Multi-target response surface optimization of the aqueous extraction of Macauba kernel oil

K. T. Magalhães
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lavras, University Campus, Brazil

T. S. Tavares
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lavras, University Campus, Brazil

T. M.C. Gomes
Department of Food Science, Federal University of Lavras, University Campus, Brazil

C. A. Nunes
Department of Food Science, Federal University of Lavras, University Campus, Brazil


Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a promising tropical palm for the production of vegetable oil for both the food and non-food sectors. In this work, a multi-target response surface optimization of the aqueous extraction of Macauba kernel oil aimed to maximize the oil yield and minimize the free acidy and peroxide value. High yield was achieved at a high pH, long extraction periods and moderate temperatures, but these conditions contributed to elevating the peroxide value of the oil. On the other hand, pH presented the only significant effect on the oil’s acidity, which decreased with the increase in pH in the aqueous medium. Therefore, the multi-target response surface optimization based on a desirability approach showed that pH 11, room temperature (25 °C) and a 60 min agitation time was preferred to obtain high yield and low free acidity and peroxide values. These conditions resulted in 30% yield (63.1% of the yield obtained by solvent extraction), 0.3% free acidity, and a peroxide value of 2.9 meqO2/kg. The oil from the optimized aqueous extraction had a higher saturated fatty acid content compared to that from solvent extraction, especially fatty acids with < 14 carbon atoms, which can make the oil harder and more useful for producing special fats for specific food applications.


Desirability; Fatty acid; Lipid; Palm

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