Grasas y Aceites, Vol 57, No 1 (2006)

Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2006.v57.i1.25

Juan Fernández-Bolaños
Food Biotechnology Departament, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain

Guillermo Rodríguez
Food Biotechnology Departament, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain

Rocío Rodríguez
Food Biotechnology Departament, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain

Rafael Guillén
Food Biotechnology Departament, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain

Ana Jiménez
Food Biotechnology Departament, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain

Abstract


In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW) or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC), and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.


Keywords


Alperujo;Bioactive compounds;Olive;mill wastewater;Olive oil cake;Recovery of valuable substances

Full Text:


PDF

References


Allouche N, Damak A, Ellouz R, Sayadi S. 2004. Use of whole cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for synthesis of the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol via conversion of tyrosol. Applied and environmental microbiology 70, 2105-2109. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.4.2105-2109.2004

Allouche N, Sayadi S. 2005. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosol, 2- hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid by differential conversion of tyrosol isomers using Serratia marcescens strain J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 6804-6811.

Aragón JM, Palancar MC. 2001. Improlive 2000. Present and future of Alpeorujo; Editorial Complutense, S. A., Madrid.

Aruoma OI. 2003. Methodological considerations for characterizing potential antioxidant actions of bioactive components in plant foods. Mutation Research-Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 523, 9-20 doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00317-2

Alonso S, Setser C. 1994. Functional replacements for sugars in food. Trends in Food Science and Technology 5, 139-146. doi:10.1016/0924-2244(94)90119-8

Aziz NH, Farag SE, Mousa LAA, Abo-Zaidt MA. 1998. Comparative antibacterial and antifungal effects of some phenolic compounds. Microbios 93, 43-54.

Bai C, Yan X, Takenaka M, Sekiya K, Nagata T. 1998. Determination of synthetic hydroxytyrosol in rat plasma by CG-MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 3998-4001. doi:10.1021/jf980451r

Bianchi G. 2003. Lipids and phenols in table olives. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 105, 229-242. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200390046

Bondioli P, Mariani C, Lanzani A, Fedeli E, Muller A. 1993. Squalene recovery from oil deodorizer distillates. J. Am.Oil Chem. Soc.70, 763-766. doi:10.1007/BF02542597

Borja R, Alba J, Banks CJ. 1997. Impact of the main phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on the kinetics of acetoclastic methanogenesis. Process Biochem. 32, 121-133. doi:10.1016/S0032-9592(96)00055-6

Bouzid O, Navarro D, Roche M, Asther M, Haon M, Delattre M, Lorquin J, Labat M, Asther M, Lesage- Meessen, L. 2005. Fungal enzymes as a powerful tool to release simple phenolic compounds from olive oil by-product Process Biochem 40, 1855-1862. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2004.06.054

Brenes M, García A, García P, Rios JJ, Garrido A. 1999. Phenolic compounds in Spanish olive oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 3535-3540. doi:10.1021/jf990009o

Brenes M, Garcia A, Rios JJ, García P, Garrido A. 2002. Use of 1-acetoxypinoresionl to authenticate Picual olive oils. Inter. J. Food Sci. Technol. 37, 615-625. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.2002.00591.x

Brenes M, Castro A. Procedure is for obtaining phenolics extract with high concentration of anti-oxidants and involves ultra-filtration of solutions derived from preparation process of preserved table olives. Patent N° ES2186467 (01.05.2003).

Calero J, Martínez L, García-Granados A. Procedimiento de aprovechamiento del alpechin para la obtención de ácidos, fenoles, alcohols y derivados mediante extracción en contracorriente. Patent N° ES2051238 (16.05.1994).

Capasso R, Evidente A, Avolio S, Solla F. 1999. A highly convenient synthesis of hydroxytyrosol and its recovery from agricultural waste waters. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 1745-1748. doi:10.1021/jf9809030

Capasso R, De Martino A, Cristinzio G. 2002. Production, characterization, and effects on tomato of humic acidlike polymerin metal derivatives from olive oil mill waste waters J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 4018-4024. doi:10.1021/jf011678g

Capasso R, Pigna M, De Martino A, Pucci M, Sannino F, Violante A. 2004. Potential remediation of waters contaminated with Cr(III), Cu, and Zn by sorption on the organic polymeric fraction of olive mill wastewater (polymerin) and its derivatives. Environm. Sci. Technol. 38, 5170-5176. doi:10.1021/es0400234

Cardoso SM, Coimbra MA, da Silva JAL. 2003. Calciummediated gelation of an olive pomace pectic extract. Carbohydrate Polymers 52, 125-133. doi:10.1016/S0144-8617(02)00299-0

Carluccio MA, Siculella L, Ancora MA, Massaro M, Scoditti E, Storelli C, Visioli F, Distante A, De Caterina R. 2003. Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols inhibit endothelial activation. Antiatherogenic properties of Mediterranean diet phytochemicals Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 23, 622-629. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000062884.69432.A0

Cassidy A, Hanley B, Lamuela-Raventos R. 2000. Isoflavones, lignans and stilbenes - origins, metabolism and potential importance to human health. J Sci. Food Agric. 80, 1044-1062. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:7<1044::AID-JSFA586>3.0.CO;2-N

Cordova J, Nemmaoui M, Ismaili-Alaoui M, Morin A, Roussos S, Raimbault M, Benjilali B. 1998. Lipase production by solid state fermentation of olive cake and sugar cane bagasse. J. Molecular catalysis benzymatic 5, 75-78.

Crea R, Cagliotti L. Water-soluble extract from olives. Patent n° US6165475. (26.12.2000)

Crea R. Method of obtaining a hydroxytyrosol-rich composition from vegetation water. Patent n°: WO0218310. (9.08.2002).

Crea R. Method and composition for treatment of inflammation and AIDS-associated neurological disorders. Patent n°:WO03/068171. (21.08.2003).

Crea R. An hydroxytyrosol-rich compositionfrom olive vegetation water and method of use thereof. Patent n°:WO2004/005228. (15.01.2004).

Crognale S, Federici F, Petruccioli M. 2003. beta-Glucan production by Botryosphaeria rhodina on undiluted olive-mill wastewaters. Biotechnology Letters 25, 2013-2015. doi:10.1023/B:BILE.0000004394.66478.05

Cuomo J, Rabovskiy AB. Antioxidant compositions extracted from olives and olive by-products. Patent n°: WO0145514. (1999).

Dionisi D, Carucci G, Papini MP, Riccardi C, Majone M, Carrasco F. 2005. Olive oil mill effluents as a feedstock for production of biodegradable polymers. Water Research 39, 2076-2084. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2005.03.011

Espin JC, Tomás-Barberán FA, García MC, Ferreres F, Soler C. Wichers HJ. Enzymatic synthesis of antioxidant hydroxytyrosol. Patent n° WO02/016628. (28.02.2002).

Fabiani R, De Bartolomeo A, Rosignoli P, Servili M, Montedoro GF, Morozzi G. 2002. Cancer chemoprevention by hydroxytyrosol isolated from virgin olive oil through G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Eur. J. Cancer Prevention. 11, 351-358. doi:10.1097/00008469-200208000-00006

Fenice M, Sermanni GG, Federici F, D’Annibale. 2003. Submerged and solid-state production of laccase and Mn-peroxidase by Panus tigrinus on olive mill wastewater-based media. J. Biotechnol. 100, 77-85. doi:10.1016/S0168-1656(02)00241-9

Fernández-Bolaños J, Heredia A, Rodríguez G, Rodríguez R., Guillén R; Jiménez A. Method for obtaining purified hydroxytyrosol from products and by-products derived from the olive tree. Patent n°: WO02064537. (22.08.2002a).

Fernández-Bolaños J, Rodríguez G, Rodríguez R, Heredia A, Guillén R, Jiménez A. 2002 b. Production in large quantities of highly purified hydroxytyrosol from liquid-solid waste of two-phase olive oil processing or “alperujo”. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 6804-6811. doi:10.1021/jf011712r

Fernández-Bolaños J, Rodríguez G, Gómez E, Guillen R, Jiménez A, Heredia A, Rodríguez R. 2004. Total recovery of the waste of two-phase olive oil processing: Isolation of added-value compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem 52: 5849-5855. doi:10.1021/jf030821y

García-Granados A, Martínez L. Procedimiento para obtener manitol y productos derivados a partir de alpeorujo procedente del procesado de las aceitunas según el procedimiento de dos fases. Patent N° ES2060549 (16.11.1994).

García-Granados A. Process for the industrial recovery of oleanolic and maslinic acids contained in the olive milling subproducts. Patente N° WO98/04331(05.02.1998).

García-Granados A, Martínez A, Parra A, Rivas F, Osuna A, Mascaro MC.Use of maslinic acid as a serine protease inhibitor for the treatment of diseases caused by parasites of the genus Crystosporidium. Patente N° ES2131467 (16.07.1999).

García-Granados A, Martínez A, Parra A, Rivas F, Osuna A, Mascaro MC. Utilización del ácido maslínico como inhibidor de proteasas para el tratamiento de la enfermedad causada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia adquirida. Patente N° ES2140329 (16.02.2000).

Giannoutsou EP, Meintanis C, Karagouni AD. 2004. Identification of yeast strains isolated from a twophase decanter system olive oil waste and investigation of their ability for its fermentation. Bioresource Technol. 93, 301-306. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2003.10.023

Guggenbichler JP, De Bettegnies-Dutz A, Meissner P, Schellmoser S, Jurenitsch J. 1997. Acidic oligosaccharides from natural sources block adherence of Escherichia coli on uroepithelial cells. Pharm. Pharmacol. Lett. 7, 35-38.

Guillén, R.; Heredia, A.; Felizón, B.; Jiménez, A.; Montaño, A.; Fernández-Bolaños, J. Fibre fraction carbohydrates in Olea europeae (Gordal and Manzanilla var.). Food Chem. 1992, 44, 173-174. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(92)90183-3

Haddadin MS, Abdulrahim SM, Al-Khawaldeh GY, Robinson RK. 1999. Solid state fermentation of waste pomace from olive processing. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 74, 613-618. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(199907)74:7<613::AID-JCTB80>3.0.CO;2-8

Ibañez E, Palacios J, Senorans FJ, Santa-Maria G, Tabera J, Reglero G. 2000. Isolation and separation of tocopherols from olive by-products with supercritical fluids. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc 77, 187-190. doi:10.1007/s11746-000-0030-8

Jiménez, A.; Guillén, R.; Fernández-Bolaños, J.; Heredia, A. Cell wall composition of olives. J. Food Science 1994, 59, 1192-1201. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1994.tb14674.x

Jiménez, A.; Rodríguez, R.; Fernández-Caro, I.; Guillén, R.; Fernández-Bolaños, J.; Heredia, A. Olive fruit cell wall degradation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides during ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001, 49, 2008-2013. doi:10.1021/jf000809v

Kubo A, Lunde CS, Kubo I. 1995. Antimicrobial activity of the olive oil flavor compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem 43, 1629-1633. doi:10.1021/jf00054a040

Kuno N, Shinohara G. Process for producing oleanolic acid and or maslinic acid. Patent N° WO02/012159 (14.02.2002).

Laufenberg G, Kunz B, Nystroem M. 2003. Transformation of vegetable waste into value added products: (A) the upgrading concept; (B) practical implementation. Bioresource Technol. 87, 167-198. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00167-0

Laufenberg G, Rosato P, Kunz B. 2004. Adding value to vegetable waste: Oil press cakes as substrates for microbial decalactone production Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 106, 207-217. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200300898

Lesage-Meessen L, Navarro D, Maunier S, Sigoillot JC, Lorquin J, Delattre M, Simon JL, Asther M, Labat M. 2001. Simple phenolic content in olive oil residues as a function of extraction systems. Food Chem. 75, 501-507. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00227-8

Lopez MJ, Moreno J, Ramos-Cormenzana A. 2001.The effect of olive mill wastewaters variability on xanthan production. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90, 829-835. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01326.x

Mardones P, Rigotti A. 2004. Cellular mechanisms of vitamin E uptake: relevance in alpha-tocopherol metabolism and potential implications for disease. J. Nutr. Biochem.15, 252-260. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.02.006

Martin M, Ferrer E, Sanz J, Gibello A. Process for the biodegradation of aromatic compounds and synthesis of pigments and colorants, alkaloids and polymers, with the use of the recombinant strain Escherichi coli P260. Patent N° WO98/04679 (5.02.1998).

Mateos R, Espartero JL, Trujillo M, Ríos JJ, León- Camacho M, Alcudia F, Cert A. 2001. Determination of phenols, flavones, and lignans in virgin olive oils by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet detection. J. Agric. Food Chem 49, 2185-2192. doi:10.1021/jf0013205

Mèrcade ME, Manresa MA. 1994. The use of agroindustrial by-products for biosurfactant production. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc 71, 61-64. doi:10.1007/BF02541473

Miró-Casas E, Covas MI, Farre M, Fito M, Ortuño J, Weinbrenner T, Roset P, de la Torre R. 2003. Hydroxytyrosol disposition in humans. Clinical Chem. 49, 945-951. doi:10.1373/49.6.945

Montilla MP, Agil A, Navarro MC, Jiménez MI, García- Granados A, Parra A, Cabo MM. 2003. Antioxidant activity of maslinic acid, a triterpene derivative obtained from Olea europaea. Planta Med. 69, 472-474. doi:10.1055/s-2003-39698

Muñoz S. Procedimiento para la producción de vitamina B12 a partir de residuos contaminantes de la industria de la aceituna. Patent N° ES2122927 (16.12.1998). Newmark HL. 1999. Squalene, olive oil and cancer risk. Rewiew and hypothesis. Ann. N.Y. Acd. Sci. 889, 193- 203.

Niaounakis M, Halvadakis P. 2004. Olive-mill waste management: literature review and patent survey, 1st Ed, Typothito-George Dardanos Publications, Athens.

Owen RW, Mier W, Giacosa A, Hull WE, Spiegelhalder B, Bartsch H. 2000. Phenolic compounds and squalene in olive oils: the concentration and antioxidant potential of total phenols, single phenols, secoiridoids, lignans and squalene. Food and Chemical Toxicology 38, 647-659. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00061-2

Owen RW, Haubner R, Mier W, Giacosa A, Hull WE, Spiegelhalder B, Bartsch H. 2003. Isolation, structure, elucidation and antioxidant potential of the major phenolic and flavonoid compounds in brined olive drupes. Food and Chemical Toxicology 41, 703-717. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00011-5

Pérez AG, Luaces P, Rios JJ, Garcia JM, Sanz C. 2003. Modification of volatile compound profile of virgin olive oil due to hot-water treatment of olive fruit J. Agric. Food Chem 51, 6544-6549. doi:10.1021/jf0346253

Pérez-Jiménez F, Alvarez de Cienfuegos G, Badimon L, Barja et al. 2005. International conference on the healthy effect of virgin olive oil. Consensus report, Jaen (Spain) 2004. Eur. J. Clinical Investigation. 35, 421-424. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2005.01516.x

Pozo C, Martinez-Toledo MV, Rodelas B, Gonzalez- Lopez J. 2002. Effects of culture conditions on the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Azotobacter chroococcum H23 in media containing a high concentration of alpechin (wastewater from olive oil mills) as primary carbon source. J. Biotechnol. 97, 125-131. doi:10.1016/S0168-1656(02)00056-1

Ramachandran S, Patel AK, Nampoothiri KM, Chandran S, Szakacs G, Soccol CR, Pandey A. 2004. Alpha amylase from a fungal culture grown on oil cakes and its properties Brazilian Arch. Biol. Technol. 47, 309-317 doi:10.1590/S1516-89132004000200019

Ranalli A; Lucera L, Contento S; Simone N; Del Re P. 2004. Bioactive constituents, flavors and aromas of virgin oils obtained by processing olives with a natural enzyme extract. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 106, 187-197. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200300863

Rao CV, Newmark HL, Reddy BS. 1998. Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer. Carcinogenesis 19, 287-290. doi:10.1093/carcin/19.2.287

Roberfroid M, Slavin J. 2000. Nondigestible oligosaccharide. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 40, 461-480. doi:10.1080/10408690091189239

Rodríguez G, Rodríguez R, Fernández-Bolaños J, Guillén R, Jiménez A. (In press) J. Sci. Food Rodríguez-Rodríguez R, Herrera MD, Perona SJ, Ruiz- Gutiérrez V. 2004. Potential vasorelaxant effects of oleanolic acid and erythrodiol, two triterpenoids contained in “orujo” olive oil, on rat aorta. Br. J. Nutition 92, 653-642.

Romero C, Brenes M, García P, Garrido A. 2002. Hidroxytyrosol 4--glucoside an important phenolic compounds in olive fruit and derived product. J. Agric. Food Chem 50, 3835-3839. doi:10.1021/jf011485t

Romero C, Garcia P, Brenes M, Garcia A, Garrido A. 2002. Phenolic compounds in natural black Spanish olive varieties. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 215, 482-496. doi:10.1007/s00217-002-0619-6

Romero C, Brenes M, Yousfi K, Garcia P, Garcia A, Garrido A. 2004. Effect of cultivar and processing method on the contents of polyphenols in table olives. J. Agric. Food Chem 52, 479-484. doi:10.1021/jf030525l

Ruíz-Bravo A, Jiménez-Valera M, Moreno E Guerra V, Ramos-Cormenzana A. 2001. Biological response modifier activity of an exopolysaccharide from Paenibacillus jamilae CP-7. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 8, 706-710. doi:10.1128/CDLI.8.4.706-710.2001

Ryan D, Antolovich M, Prenzler P, Robards K, Lavee S. 2002. Biotransformatios of phenolic compounds in Olea europaea L. Scientia Horticulturae 92, 147-176. doi:10.1016/S0304-4238(01)00287-4

Sandhya C, Sumantha A, Szakacs G, Pandey A. 2005. Comparative evaluation of neutral protease production by Aspergillus oryzae in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Process Biochem. 40, 2689- 2694. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2004.12.001

Schieber A, Stintzing FC, Carle R. 2001. By-products of plant food processing as a source of functional compounds - recent developments. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 12, 401-413. doi:10.1016/S0924-2244(02)00012-2

Tomás-Barberán FA, Lorach R, Espín JC, Ferreres F. (In press) Agri-Food residues as a source of phytochemicals. Proceeding Total Food 2004. Norwich (UK).

Tomati U, Di Lena G, Galli E, Grappelli A, Buffone R. 1990. Indolacetic acid production from olive waste water by Arthrobacter spp. Agrochimica 34, 228-232.

Tomati U, Belardinelli M, Galli E, Iori V, Capitani D, Mannina L, Viel S, Segre A. 2004. NMR characterization of the polysaccharidic fraction from Lentinula edodes grown on olive mill waste waters. Carbohydrate Research 339, 1129-1134. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2004.02.007

Tuck KL, Hayball PJ. 2002. Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 13, 636-644. doi:10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00229-2

Van der Boom V, Zeelenberg-Miltenburg MJ. Food compositions fortified with anti-oxidants. Patent N° WO00/36936 (29.06.2000)

Vierhuis E, Servili M, Baldioli M, Schols HA, Voragen AGJ, Montedoro G. 2001 a. Effect of enzyme treatment during mechanical extraction of olive oil on phenolic compounds and polysaccharides J. Agric. Food Chem 49, 1218-1223. doi:10.1021/jf000578s

Vierhuis E, Schols HA, Beldman G, Voragen AGJ. 2001 b. Structural characterization of xyloglucan and xylans present in olive fruit (Olea europeae, cv Koroneiki). Carbohydrates Polymers 44, 51-62. doi:10.1016/S0144-8617(00)00199-5

Visioli F, Romani A, Mulinacci N, Zarini S, Conte D, Vincieri FF, Galli C. 1999. Antioxidant and other biological activities of olive oil mill waste water. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 3397-3401. doi:10.1021/jf9900534

Visioli F, Galli C. 2002. Biological properties of olive oil phytochemicals. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 42, 209-221. doi:10.1080/10408690290825529

Visioli F, Grande S, Bogani P, Galli C. 2004.The role of antioxidants in the Mediterranean diets: focus on cancer. Eur. J. Cancer Prevention 13, 337-343. doi:10.1097/01.cej.0000137513.71845.f6

Visioli F, Caruso D, Grande S, Bosisio R, Villa M, Galli G, Sirtori C, Galli C. 2005. Virgin Olive Oil Study (VOLOS): vasoprotective potential of extra virgin olive oil in mildly dyslipidemic patients. European Journal of Nutrition 44, 121-127. doi:10.1007/s00394-004-0504-0

Vlyssides AG, Loizides M, Karlis PK. 2004. Integrated strategic approach for reusing olive oil extraction. Journal of Cleaner Production. 12, 603-611. doi:10.1016/S0959-6526(03)00078-7

Wähner RS, Mendez BA, Giulietti AM. 1988. Olive black water as raw material for butanol production. Biol. Wastes 23, 215-220. doi:10.1016/0269-7483(88)90035-3

Waldron KW. (In press). Plant residues. Proceeding Total Food 2004. Norwich (UK).

Yurekli F, Yesilada O, Yurekli M, Topcuoglu SF. 1999. Plant growth hormone production from olive oil mill and alcohol factory wastewaters by white rot fungi. World J. Microb. Biot. 15, 503-505. doi:10.1023/A:1008952732015

Zhu YM, Shen JK, Wang HK, Consentino LM, Lee KH. 2001. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of oleanolic acid derivatives. Biorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 11, 3115-3118. doi:10.1016/S0960-894X(01)00647-3




Copyright (c) 2006 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es