Grasas y Aceites, Vol 59, No 1 (2008)

Pistachio (Pistacia vera) seed oil composition: geographic situation and variety effects

T. Chahed, A. Bellila, W. Dhifi, I. Hamrouni, B. M’hamdi, M. E. Kchouk, B. Marzouk



This study was aimed at characterizing four Tunisian pistachio cultivations (Pistacia vera) from the Mateur (North), Nabeul (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle- East) regions and two varieties, Mateur and Ohadi, considering fatty acid composition and main lipid class contents (polar lipids, diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids) in ripe seeds. Lipid classes were separated using thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by gas chromatography. Oleic acid (C18:1 Δ9) was the major fatty acid for all samples; those of the Mateur region (the northern region) differed significantly with the lowest content in C18:1 (54.2 % of total fatty acids) and the highest in C18:2 (24.1 %). The total amount of fatty acids (TFA) in the seeds of Ohadi variety was significantly lower than that of the Mateur variety from the Sfax region. Triacylglycerols were most abundant in pistachio seeds from Nabeul (98.5% of total glycerolipids).


Fatty acids; Glycerolipids; Mateur variety; Ohadi variety; Pistachio; Pistacia vera

Full Text:



Agar IT, Kaska N, Kafkas S. 1995. Effect of different ecologies on the fat content and fatty acid composition of different Pistacia vera varieties grown in different parts of Turkey. Acta Hortic. 419, 411-415.

Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37, 911-917.

Cecchi G, Biasini S, Castano J. 1985. Méthanolyse rapide des huiles en solvant. Note de Laboratoire. Rev. Fr. Corps Gras 32 (4) 163-164.

CODEX STAN 33-1981 (Rév. 1-1989, previously CAC/RS 33-1970). Norme CODEX pour les huiles d’olive vierges et raffinées et pour l’huile de grignons d’olive raffinée.

Douce R. 1964. Identification et dosage de quelques glycérophosphatides dans les souches normales et tumorales de scorsonères cultivées “in vitro”. C. R. Acad Sci Paris 259, 3066-3068.

Fedeli E. 1977. Lipids of olives. Prog. Chem. Fats & other lipids 15, 57-74. doi:10.1016/0079-6832(77)90007-6

Fraser GE. 1999. Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coronary event. Clin. Cardiol. 22 (Suppl. 7) III, 11-15.

Garcia JM, Agar IT, Sterif J. 1992. Fat content and fatty acid composition in individual seeds of pistachio varieties grown in Turkey. Gartenbauwissenschaft 57, 130-133.

Ghrab M, Ben Mimoun M, Gouta H. 2004. Pistachio production in Tunisia. FAO-CIHEAM – Nucis- Newsletter 12, 19-21.

Hadj-Hassan A, Kardouch M. 1995. Status of pistachio nut cultivation in Syria. Acta Hort. Pistachio nut I. 419, 221-227.

Jacquy P. 1973. La culture du pistachier en Tunisie. Projet AGP FAO/TUN/72/003 (Tunisia).

Joley LE. 1969. Pistachio. In R.A. Jaynes, Handbook of North American nut trees. Northern Nut Grower Assoc. (pp. 348-361). Knoxville.

Kaijser A, Dutta P, Savage G. 2000. Oxidative stability and lipid composition of macadamia nuts grown in New Zealand. Food Chem. 71, 67–70. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00132-1

Kashaninejad M, Mortazavi A, Safekordi A, Tabil LG. 2004. Some physical properties of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut and its kernel. J. Food Eng. 72, 30–38. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.11.016

Kris-Etherton PM, Zhao G, Binkoski AE, Coval SM, Etherton TD. 2001. The effects of nuts on coronary heart disease risk. Nutrition Reviews 59 (4) 103-111.

Küçüköner E, Yurt B. 2003. Some chemical characteristics of Pistacia vera varieties produced in Turkey. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 217, 308-310. doi:10.1007/s00217-003-0763-7

Mancha M. 1974. Fosfolipidos y glycolipidos de la pulpa de aceitunas maduras. Grasas Aceites 25, 159-164.

Mangold HK. 1964. Thin layer chromatography of lipids. JAOCS 47, 762-773. doi:10.1007/BF02676266

Maskan M, Karata7 S. 1998. Fatty acid oxidization of pistachio nuts stored under various atmospheric conditions and different temperatures. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77, 334-340. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199807)77:3<334::AID-JSFA42>3.0.CO;2-A

Mazliak P. 1988. Environmental effects on fatty acid quality. In N.J. Pinfield. & A.K. Stobart, Plant Lipids: Targets for manipulation, (pp. 57-71) Univ. Bristol.

Mc Carthy JJ, Stumpf PK. 1980. The effect of different temperatures on fatty acid synthesis and polyunsaturation in cell suspension cultures. Planta 147, 389-395. doi:10.1007/BF00380178

Ministère de l’Agriculture et des Ressources Hydrauliques, DG/EDA. 2006. Annuaire des Statistiques Agricoles 2005. p. 60. République Tunisienne, décembre 2006.

Montefredine A, Laporta L. 1963. Ricerche gaschromatografiche sulla composizione degli olii d’oliva italiani. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse 40, 379-381.

Ohlrogge J, Browse J. 1995. Lipid biosynthesis. The Plant Cell 7, 957-970.

Page RA, Okada S, Harwood JL. 1994. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase exerts strong flux control over lipid synthesis in plants. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1210 (3) 369-372.

Satil F, Azcan N, Baser KHC. 2003. Fatty acid composition of pistachio nuts in Turkey. Chem. Nat. Compd. 39 (4) 322-324. doi:10.1023/B:CONC.0000003408.63300.b5

Shokraii EH. 1977. Chemical composition of the pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) of kerman, Iran. J. Food Sci. 42, 244-245. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1977.tb01261.x

Yildiz M, Turcan GT, Ozdemir M. 1998. Oil composition of pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) from Turkey. Fett/Lipid 100, 84-86.

Copyright (c) 2008 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Spain (CC-by).

Contact us

Technical support