Grasas y Aceites, Vol 59, No 1 (2008)

Production of biodiesel from vegetable oils


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2008.v59.i1.494

José María Cerveró
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Oviedo, Spain

José Coca
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Oviedo, Spain

Susana Luque
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Oviedo, Spain

Abstract


Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides present in animal fat or vegetable oils, by displacing glycerine with a low molar mass alcohol. This resulting ester mixture has physico-chemical properties similar to those of petroleum diesel. This paper reviews the synthetic paths that lead to biodiesel by means of the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils. Although methyl esters are at present the only ones produced at industrial scale, the use of ethanol, which can also be obtained from renewable resources, has been considered, since it would generate a cleaner and more biocompatible fuel.

Keywords


Biodiesel; Fatty Acid Esters; Transesterification; Triglycerides

Full Text:


PDF

References


Aracil J, Vicente M, Martínez M, Poulina M. 2006. Biocatalytic processes for the production of fatty acid esters. J. Biotechnol. 124. 213-223. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.01.008

Bournay L, Casanave D, Delfort B, Hillion G, Chodorge JA. 2005. New heterogeneous process for biodiesel production: A way to improve the quality and the value of the crude glycerine produced by biodiesel plants. Catal. Today 106. 190-192. doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2005.07.181

Bradshaw GB, Meuly WC. Preparation of detergents. U.S. Patent 2.360.844 (1944).

Breivik H, Haraldsson GG, Kristinsson B. 1997. Preparation of highly purified concentrates of eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74, 1425-1429. doi:10.1007/s11746-997-0248-0

Canakci M. 2007. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fuelled with petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel. Bioresource Technol. 98. 1167-1175. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2006.05.024

Demirbas A. 2003. Biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils via catalytic and non catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey. Energ. Convers. Manag. 44. 2093-2109. doi:10.1016/S0196-8904(02)00234-0

Dossat V, Combes D, Marty A. 1999. Continuous enzymatic transesterification of high oleic sunflower oil in a packed bed reactor: influence of the glycerol production. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 25. 194-200. doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(99)00026-5

Dossat V, Combes D, Marty A. 2002. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of high oleic sunflower oil. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 30. 90-94. doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(01)00453-7

Feuge RO, Grose T. 1949. Modification of vegetable oils. VII. Alkali catalyzed interesterification of peanut oil with ethanol. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 26. 97-102. doi:10.1007/BF02665167

Freedman B, Pryde EH, Mounts TL. 1984. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetables oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61. 1638-1643. doi:10.1007/BF02541649

Freedman B, Butterfield RO, Pryde EH. 1986. Transesterification kinetics of soybean oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 63. 1375-1380. doi:10.1007/BF02679606

Fukuda, H, Kondo A, Noda H. 2001. Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 92 (5). 405-416. doi:10.1263/jbb.92.405

Harrington KJ, D’arcy-Evans C. 1985a. A comparison of conventional and in situ methods of transesterification of seed oil from a series of sunflower cultivars. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 62. 1009-1013.

Harrington KJ, D’arcy-Evans C. 1985b.Transesterification in situ of sunflower seed oil. Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 24. 314-318.

Hartman L. 1956. Methanolysis of triglycerides. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 33. 129-132. doi:10.1007/BF02632297

Isono Y, Nabetani H, Nakajima M. 1995. Interesterification of triglyceride and fatty acid in a microaqueous reaction system using lipase-surfactant complex. Biosci. Biotech. Bioch. 59. 1632-1635

Kildrian G, Özgül S, Türkay S. 1996. In situ alcoholysis of soybean oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73. 225-228. doi:10.1007/BF02523899

Kim H-J, Kang B-S, Kim M-J, Park YM, Kim D-K, Lee J-S, Lee K-Y. 2004. Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalyst. Catal. Today 93-95. 315-320. doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2004.06.007

Krisnangkura K, Simamaharnnop R. 1992. Continuous transmethylation of palm oil in a organic solvent. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69. 166-169. doi:10.1007/BF02540569

Lai CC, Zullaikah S, Ramjan Vadi S, Ju YH. 2005. Lipasecatalyzed production of biodiesel from rice bran oil. J. Chem. Technol. Biot. 80. 331-337. doi:10.1002/jctb.1208

Lapuerta M, Armas O, Ballesteros R, Fernández J. 2005. Diesel emissions from biofuels derived from Spanish potential vegetable oils. Fuel 84. 773-780. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2004.11.010

Larosa RJ. 2005. Situación actual del biodiesel. Ing. Quim. 421. 97-194.

Ma F, Clements LD, Hanna MA. 1998. Biodiesel fuel from animal fat. Ancillary studies on transesterification of beef tallow. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 37. 3768-3771. doi:10.1021/ie980162s

Ma F, Hanna M A. 1999. Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresource Technol. 70. 1-15. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00025-5

Madras G, Kolluru C, Kumar R. 2004. Synthesis of biodiesel in supercritical fluids, Fuel 83. 2029-2033. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2004.03.014

Marchetti JM, Miguel VU, Errazu AF. 2007. Possible methods for biodiesel production, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 11. 1300-1311. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.006

Martínez M, Aracil J. 2006. Biodiesel: Current trends and technical developments in Spain. Proceedings of the 6th ANQUE International Congress of Chemistry “Chemistry and Sustainable Developments”. Abstracts Book, Vol. 2. T3-33.

McCoy M. 1998. Biomass ethanol inches forward. Chem. Eng. News 76. 29-32.

Meher LC, Vidya-Sagar D, Naik SN. 2006. Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterificationa review. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 10. 248-268. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2004.09.002

Mittelbach M. 1990. Lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis of sunflower oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67. 168-170. doi:10.1007/BF02539619

Mukherjee K, Kiewitt I. 1988. Preparation of esters resembling natural waxes by lipase-catalyzed reactions, J. Agr. Food Chem., 36, 1333-1336. doi:10.1021/jf00084a052

Online Medical Dictionary, published by Medical Oncology Department. Newcastle University. October (2002).

Özgül S, Türkay S. 1993. In situ esterification of rice bran oil with methanol and ethanol. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 70. 145-147. doi:10.1007/BF02542617

Peterson C, Möller G, Haws R, Zhang X, Thompson J, Reece D. 1996. Ethyl ester process scale-up and biodegradability of biodiesel. USDA. 93-COOP-1-8627.

Salis A, Pinna M, Monduzzi M, Solinas V. 2005. Biodiesel production from triolein and short chain alcohols through biocatalysts. J. Biotechnol. 119. 291-299. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2005.04.009

Sarbolouki MN, Moacanin J. 1980. Chemicals from biomass. The U.S. prospects for the turn of the century. Sol. Energy 25. 303-315. doi:10.1016/0038-092X(80)90343-6

Schwab AW, Bagby MO, Freedman B. 1987. Preparation and properties of diesel fuels from vegetables oils. Fuel 66. 1372-1378. doi:10.1016/0016-2361(87)90184-0

Scragg AH, Morrison J, Shales SW. 2003. The use of a fuel containing Chlorella vulgaris in a diesel engine. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 33. 884-889. doi:10.1016/j.enzmictec.2003.01.001

Shah S, Sharma S, Gupta MN. 2004. Biodiesel preparation by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil. Energ. Fuel. 18. 154-159. doi:10.1021/ef030075z

Sharp CA. Characterization of biodiesel exhaust emissions for EPA 211 (b). San Antonio Southwest Research Institute. Report nº 08-1039A. January (1998).

Shaw J-F, Wang D-L, Wang Y-J. 1991. Lipase-catalysed ethanolysis and isopropanolysis of triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 13. 544-546. doi:10.1016/0141-0229(91)90089-S

Shimada Y, Sugihara A, Nakano H, Kuramoto T, Nagao T, Gemba M, Tominaga Y. 1997. Purification of docosahexanoic acid by selective esterification of fatty acids from tuna oil with Rhizopus delemar lipase. J Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74. 97-101. doi:10.1007/s11746-997-0151-8

Shimada Y, Maruyama K, Sugihara A, Baba T, Komemushi S, Moriyama S, Tominaga Y. 1998. Purification of ethyl docosahexanoate by selective alcoholysis of fatty acids ethyl esters with immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase. J Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75. 1565-1571. doi:10.1007/s11746-998-0095-7

Soumanou M, Bornscheuer UT. 2003. Improvement in lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from sunflower oil. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 33, 97-103. doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(03)00090-5

Srivastava A, Prasad R. 2000. Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 4. 111-133. doi:10.1016/S1364-0321(99)00013-1

Turck R. Method for producing fatty acid esters of monovalent alkyl alcohols and use thereof. U.S. Patent 0.156.305 (2002).

Tsai SW, Chang CS. 1993. Kinetics of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of lipids in biphasic organic-aqueous systems. J. Chem. Technol. Biot. 57. 147-154.

Tyson K. 2001. Biodiesel handling and use guidelines. National Resource Energy Laboratory. USDOE, Golden, CO

Uosukainen E, Lämsä M, Linko YY, Linko P, Leisola M. 1999. Optimization of enzymatic transesterification of rapeseed oil ester using response surface and principal component methodology. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 25. 236-243. doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(99)00034-4

Vacek M, Zarevucka M, Wimmer Z, Stransky K, Koutek B, Mackova M, Demnerova K. 2000. Lipase-mediated hydrolysis of blackcurrant oil. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 27. 531-536. doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(00)00239-8

Van Gerpen J. 2006. Biodiesel Processing and Production. Fuel Process Technol., 86 (19). 1097-1107.

Varese R, Varese M. 1996. Methyl ester biodiesel: opportunity or necessity? Inform. 7, 816-824.

Vicente Crespo G, Martínez Rodríguez M, Aracil Mira J. 2001. Biodiesel, una alternativa real al gasóleo mineral. Ing. Quim. 377. 135-145.

Vicente G, Martínez M, Aracil J. 2004. Integrated biodiesel production: a comparison of different homogeneous catalysts systems. Bioresource Technol. 92. 297-305. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2003.08.014

Wright JD. 1988. Ethanol from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis. Chem. Eng. Process 84. 62-73.

Wu WH, Foglia TA, Marmer WN, Phillips JG. 1999. Optimizing production of ethyl esters of grease using 95% ethanol by response surface methodology. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76. 517-521. doi:10.1007/s11746-999-0034-2

Yamane K, Ueta A, Shimamoto Y. 2001. Influence of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel fuel on injection, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics in a DC-CI engine. Proc 5th Int. Symp. On Diagnostics and Modelling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA 2001). Nagoya. 402-409.

Zhang X, Peterson C, Reece D, Haws R, Möller G. 1998. Biodegradability of biodiesel in aquatic environment. Trans. Am. Soc. Eng. 41. 1423-1430.

Zhang Y, Dubé MA, Mclean DD, Kates M. 2003. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1.- Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis, Bioresource Technol. 90. 229-240. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00150-0




Copyright (c) 2008 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es