Grasas y Aceites, Vol 60, No 1 (2009)

Different fattening systems of Iberian pigs according to the 1-alkene hydrocarbon content in the subcutaneous fat


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.053708

I. Viera-Alcaide
Departamento de Calidad y Caracterización de Alimentos, Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, Spain

M. Narváez-Rivas
Departamento de Calidad y Caracterización de Alimentos, Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, Spain

I. M. Vicario
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain

E. Graciani-Constante
Departamento de Calidad y Caracterización de Alimentos, Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, Spain

M. León-Camacho
Departamento de Calidad y Caracterización de Alimentos, Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, Spain

Abstract


The n-Alkene content in samples of subcutaneous fat corresponding to 755 castrated male Iberian pigs has been determined by an off-line combination of HPLC and GC method. The samples corresponded to three groups based on the type of feeding during the finish fattening period (“Montanera”, fed on acorns and pasture; “Recebo”, fed on acorns, feed and pasture; and “Cebo”, fed on feed and pasture). By using the n-alkenes as chemical descriptors, multivariate statistical techniques were applied to differentiate between the three fattening diet types for Iberian pigs. The most differentiating variables were n-C16:1, n-C18:1, n-C22:1 and n-C24:1. However, a clear classification of the samples was not achieved. The level of classification was improved when the data corresponding to the animals fed with the “Recebo” fattening diet was removed from the analysis. A relationship between n-C14:1, n-C16:1 and n-C18:1 levels and the slaughter period was found to be very low for the animals fed with the “Cebo” fattening diet when the animals had not been closely managed and pasture had not been included in their fattening diet.

Keywords


Fattening systems; Gas chromatography; Iberian pig; 1-alkenes; Subcutaneous fat

Full Text:


PDF

References


Andersen HJ, Oksbjerg N, Young JF, Therkildsen M. 2005. Feeding and meat quality- a future approach. Meat Sci. 70, 543-554. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.07.015

Bandurski EL, Nagi, B. 1975. Nature of Alkanes in beef Heart Lipids. Lipids 10, 67-69. doi:10.1007/BF02532157 PMid:1117806

Bénédicte L, Guillard A. 2005. Outdoor rearing of cull sows: Effects on carcass, tissue composition and meat quality. Meat Sci. 70, 247-257. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.01.007

Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE) 2004. Orden PRE/ 3844/2004. Por la que se establecen los métodos oficiales de toma de muestras en canales de cerdos ibéricos y el método de análisis para la determinación de la composición de ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales del tejido adiposo subcutáneo de cerdos ibéricos. (pp. 38770-38775). Madrid, Spain.

Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE) 2007. REAL DECRETO 1469/2007. Por el que se aprueba la norma de calidad para la carne, el jamón, la paleta y la caña de lomo ibéricos. (pp. 45087-45104). Madrid, Spain.

Bosi P, Cacciavillani JA, Casini L, Lo Fiego DP, Marchetti M. 2000. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, Koper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham. Meat Sci. 54, 119-126. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00071-6

Gamero-Pasadas A, Viera Alcalde I, Rios JJ, Graciani Constante E, Vicario IM, León-Camacho M. 2006. Characterization and quantification of the hydrocarbons fraction of the subcutaneous fresh fat of Iberian pig by off line combination of high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. J Chrom. A. 1123, 82-91.

García Rebollo AJ, Maciá Botejara E, Ortiz Cansado A, Morales PJ, Martín Bellido M, Fallola Sánchez A, Mena Arias P, Campillo Álvarez JE. 1998. Effects of consumption of meat product rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (the ham from the Iberian pig) on plasma lipids. Nutr Res. 18, 743-750. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(98)00060-8

León-Camacho M and Morales MT. 2000. Gas and Liquid Chromatography: Methodology Applied to Olive Oil, in Harwood JL and Aparicio R (Ed.). Handbook of Olive Oil: Analysis and Properties. Aspen, Gaithersburg, MD, 159-208.

León-Camacho M, Viera-Alcaide I, Vicario IM. 2004. Acorn (Quercus spp.) Fruit lipids: Saponificable and Unsaponificable fractions: a detail study. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 81, 447-453. doi:10.1007/s11746-004-0921-8

Lintas C, Balduzzi AM, Bernardini MP, Di Muccio A. 1979. Distribution of hydrocarbons in bovine tissues. Lipids 14, 298-303. doi:10.1007/BF02533918 PMid:449633

López Bote CJ. 1998. Sustained utilization of the Iberian pig breed. Meat Sci. 49,(suppl).S17-S27.

Martín Q. 2001. Curso de tratamiento de datos estadísticos con SPSS. Editorial Hespérides, Salamanca (Spain).

Meloun M, Militky J, Forina M. 1992. Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry. Ellis Horwood, New York.

Petrón MJ, Antequera T, Muriel E, Tejeda JF, Ventanas J. 2004. Linear hydrocarbons content of intramuscular lipids of dry-cured Iberian ham. Meat Sci. 66, 295-300. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(03)00102-5

Petrón MJ, Muriel E, Tejeda JF, Ventanas J, Antequera T. 2006. Effect of duration of the Montanera diet on hydrocarbon fraction of intramuscular lipids from Iberian dry-cured ham; characterization by gas chromatography. J Sci Food Agric. 86, 1040-1045. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2452

Petrón MJ, Tejeda JF, Muriel E, Ventanas J, Antequera T. 2005. Study of the branched hydrocarbon fraction of intramuscular lipids from Iberian dry-cured ham. Meat Scie. 69, 129-134. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.06.014

Rey AI, Daza A, López-Carrasco C, López-Bote CJ. 2006. Feeding Iberian pigs with acorns and grass in either free-range or confinement affects the carcass characteristics and fatty acids and tocopherols accumulation in Longissimus dorsi muscle and backfat. Meat Sci. 73 (1): 66-74. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.10.018

StatSoft Inc. (1995). Statistica 5.5 for Windows Computer Program, Tulsa, OK. StatSoft, Inc., 1995, 2300 East 14th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104.

StatSoft Inc. (2001). Statistica for Windows v.6.0. Data analysis software system, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

StatSoft, Inc. (2002). Electronic Statistics Textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. Available at: http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stathome.html.

Tejeda JF, Antequera T, Martín L, Ventanas J, García C. 2001a. Study of the branched hydrocarbon fraction of intramuscular lipids from Iberian fresh ham. Meat Sci. 58, 175-179. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00148-0

Tejeda JF, Antequera T, Ruiz J, Cava R, Ventanas J, García C. 1999. Unsaponifiable fraction and n-alkane profile of subcutaneous fat from Iberian ham. Food Sci Technol Int. 5, 229-233. doi:10.1177/108201329900500305

Tejeda JF, García C, Petrón MJ, Andrés AI, Antequera T. 2001b. n-Alkane content of intramuscular lipids of Iberian fresh ham from different feeding systems and crossbreeding. Meat Sci. 57, 371-377. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00114-5

Viera-Alcaidea, I, Vicario IM, Graciani Constante E, León-Camacho, M. 2007. Authentication of fattening diet of Iberian pig according to Their triacylglycerol profile from subcutaneous fat. Anal. Chim. Acta 596, 319-324. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2007.06.026 PMid:17631113

Viera-Alcaidea, I, Vicario IM, Escudero-Gilete, ML, Graciani Constante E, León-Camacho, M. 2008. A multivariate study of the triacylglycerols composition of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of iberian pig in relation to the fattening diet and genotype. Grasas y Aceites 59, 327-338. doi:10.3989/gya.2008.v59.i4.527




Copyright (c) 2009 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es