Grasas y Aceites, Vol 57, No 4 (2006)

Effect of salinity on yield and quality of Moringa oleifera seed oil

Farooq Anwar
Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Abdullah Ijaz Hussain
Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Muhammad Ashraf
Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Amer Jamail
Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Shahid Iqbal
Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Pakistan


Variation in the yield and composition of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) seed oil from two differently adopted (non-saline and saline) provinces of Pakistan was examined. Hexaneextracted M. oleifera seeds from saline and non-saline areas contained 33.50% and 32.79% oil yield, respectively. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant differences in the physical (refractive index (40 oC), color and specific gravity (24 °C) or chemical (iodine value, free fatty acid value, peroxide value, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, conjugated diene and triene values and  p-anisidine value) characteristics of the oils obtained from both areas. The concentration of C18:1 and C16:0 was significantly (P < 0.001) higher whereas, that of C14:0 was lower in M. oleifera seed oils from the saline area. A tocopherol analysis demonstrated the concentration of α- and δ-tocopherol of Moringa seed oils to be significantly (P < 0.001) higher from the saline area. Whereas, the contents of γ-tocopherol was found to be significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the Moringa seed oils native to the non-saline area. Results from the present study revealed that salinity did not affect the oil content of M. oleifera seeds. Nevertheless, it might affect the tocopherol and fatty acid profiles of M. oleifera seed oil.


Characterization;Fatty acid composition;Moringa oleifera;Oil quality;Salinity;Tocopherols

Full Text:



Abdulkarim SM, Long K, Lai OM, Muhammad SKS, Ghazali HM. 2005. Some physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods. Food Chem. 93, 253-263. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.023

American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS). 1997. Official and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists Society, 5th Ed., AOCS Press, Champaign.

Anwar F, Ashraf M, Bhanger MI. 2005. Interprovenance variation in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82(1), 45-51. doi:10.1007/s11746-005-1041-1

Anwar F, Bhanger MI. 2003. Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 6558-6563. doi:10.1021/jf0209894

Baldini M, Giovanardi R, Tahmasebi-Enferadi S, Vannozzi GP. 2002. Effects of water regime on fatty acid accumulation and final fatty acid composition in the oil of standard and high oleic sunflower hybrids. Ital. J. Agron. 6(2), 119-126.

Bassil ES, Kaffka SR. 2002. Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to saline soils and irrigation: II. crop response to salinity. Agric.Water Manage. 54, 81-92. doi:10.1016/S0378-3774(01)00144-5

Erdei L, Stuiver GEC, Kupier PJC. 1980. The effect of salinity on lipid composition and on activity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ simulated ATPase in salt-sensitive and salttolerant Plantago Species. Physiol. Plant. 49, 315-319. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1980.tb02670.x

Federation of Oils Seeds and Fats Association International (FOSFA International). 1982. Manual of the Federation of Oils Seeds and Fats Association, 277 (FOFSA) International. London.

Flagella Z, Cantore V, Giuliani MM, Tarantio E, De Caro A. 2002a. Crop salt tolerance physiological, yield and quality aspects. Rec. Res. Dev. Plant Biol. 2, 155-186.

Flagella Z, Giuliani MM, Rotunno T, Di Caterina R, De Caro A. 2004. Effect of saline water on oil yield and quality of a high oleic sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrid. Eur. J. Agron. 21, 267-272. doi:10.1016/j.eja.2003.09.001

Flagella Z, Rotunno T, Tarantino E, Di Caterina R, De Caro A. 2002b. Changes in seed yield and oil fatty composition of high oleic sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in relation to the sowing date and water regime. Eur. J. Agron. 17, 221-230. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00012-6

Francois LE, Kleiman R. 1990. Salinity effects on vegetative growth, seed yield, and fatty acid composition of crambe. Agron. J. 82, 1110–1114.

Heuer B, Nadler A. 1998. Physiological response of potato plants to soil salinity and water deficit. Plant Sci. 137(1), 43-51. doi:10.1016/S0168-9452(98)00133-2

Heuer B, Ravina I, Davidov S. 2005. Seed yield, oil content, and fatty acid composition of stock (Matthiola incana) under saline irrigation. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 56, 45-47. doi:10.1071/AR04162

Heuer B, Yaniv Z, Ravina I. 2002. Effect of late salinization of chia (Salvia hispanica), stock (Matthiola tricuspidata) and evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) on their oil content and quality. Ind. Crop Prod. 15, 163-167. doi:10.1016/S0926-6690(01)00107-8

Heuer B. 1994. Osmoregulatory role of proline in water and salt stressed plants. In Pessarakli M. (Ed.) Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress 363-381. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1977. Oilseed Residues-Determination of Total Ash, ISO, Geneva, Standard No. 749.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1981. Animal Feeding Stuffs-Determination of Nitrogen and Calculation of Crude Protein Content, ISO, Geneva, Standard No. 5983.

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). 1987. Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives, 7th rev. enlarged Ed., edited by C. Paquot and A. Hautfenne, Blackwell Scientific, London.

Jin Woong C, Choongsoo K. 1998. Effect of NaCl concentration on photosynthesis and mineral content of barley seedlings under solution culture. Korean J. Crop Sci. 43(3), 152-156.

Khan AH. 1998. Irrigation system performance assessment by decision support system and the role of a modern information transmission system in its operation. M. Phil Thesis, Report No.S44. International Water Management Institute. Lahore, Pakistan.

Lee BL, New AL, Ong CN. 2003. Simultaneous determination of tocotrienols, tocopherol, retinol and major carotenoids in human plasma. Clin. Chem. 49, 2056-2066. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2003.022681

McGinely L. 1991. Analysis and quality control for processing and processed fats, in Rossell JB, Pritchard JLR, (Eds.), Analysis of Oilseeds, Fats and Fatty Foods, 460–470, Elsevier Applied Science, New York.

Munns R, Cramer GR, Ball. 1999. Interactions between rising CO2, soil salinity and plant growth. in Luo Y and Mooney HA.(Eds.), Carbon dioxide and environmental stress, 139-167, Academic Press, London.

Parti RS, Deep V, Gupta SK. 2003. Effect of salinity on lipid components of mustard seeds. Plant Food Human Nutr. 58, 1-10. doi:10.1023/A:1024063105507

Rossell JB. 1991. Vegetable oils and fats, in Rossell JB, Pritchard JLR, (Eds.), Analysis of Oilseeds, Fats and Fatty Foods, 261-319, Elsevier Applied Science, New York.

Royo A, Gracia MS, Aragues R. 2005. Effect of soil salinity on the quality of Arbequina olive oil. Grasas Y Aceites 56(1), 25-33.

Smaoui A, Cherift A. 2000. Changes in molecular species of triacylglycerols in developing cottonseeds under salt stress. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 28, 902-905. doi:10.1042/BST0280902

Somali MA, Bajnedi MA, Al-Fhaimani SS. 1984. Chemical composition and characteristics of Moringa peregrine seeds and seed oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61, 85–86. doi:10.1007/BF02672051

Taneja R. 1988. Effect of cytokinin on growth, yield and metabolism of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown under saline conditions. M.Sc. Thesis, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India.

Tester M, Davenport R. 2003. Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann. Bot. 91, 503-527. doi:10.1093/aob/mcg058

Tsaknis J, Lalas S, Gergis V, Dourtoglou V, Spilitois V. 1999. Characterization of Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seed oil of Kenya. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 4495–4499. doi:10.1021/jf9904214

Tsaknis J. 1998. Characterization of Moringa peregrine Arabian Seed Oil, Grasas Aceites (Sevilla) 49, 170–176.

Van de Graaff R, Patteson RA. 2001. Explaining the Mysteries of Salinity, Sodicity, SAR and ESP in Patterson R.A. and Jones M.J. (Eds). On-site Practice in Proceedings of On-site 01 Conference: Advancing On-site Wastewater System, 361-368. Published by Laboratories, Armidale.

Yoon SH, Kim SK, Shin MG, Kim KH. 1985. Comparative study of physical methods for lipid oxidation measurement. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68, 1487–1489. doi:10.1007/BF02541899

Copyright (c) 2006 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support