Grasas y Aceites, Vol 61, No 2 (2010)

Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras)


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.074908

Ferial M. Abu-Salem
Department of Food Technology, National Research Centre, Egypt

Esmat A. Abou Arab
Department of Food Technology, National Research Centre, Egypt

Abstract


Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning “fatty liver”, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras). Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras) changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras) manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA) or sorbic acid (SA) and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 °C were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 °C. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras) from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 °C could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras). A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of taste, odor, appearance, color and texture. In comparison to liver paste from duck, the results proved that no significant differences were observed between the liver paste from chicken and duck liver paste.

Keywords


Chemical evaluation; Chicken liver paste (foie gras); Duck liver paste; Microbiological evaluation; Preservation; Raw chicken liver; Sensory evaluation

Full Text:


PDF

References


Abou-Arab AAK. 2001. Heavy metal contents in Egyptian meat and the role of detergent washing on their levels. J. Food and Chemical Toxicology 39, 593-599. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00176-9

Abu-Salem FM, Khalaf HH. 1988. Changes of microbiological and chemical properties of chicken meat products (fine chest, sausage and luncheon) during frozen storage at (-18 °C) for 10 months. Ann. Agric. Moshtohor 26 2617-2626.

Abu-Salem FM, Khallaf HH. 1988. Preservation of chicken fat at low tempearature in presence of antioxidants. Annals Agric. Sci. Fac. Agric. Ain Shams. Cairo, Egypt. 33, 115-1130.

Aman ME, Smirnova GA. 1970. Studies on the lipids of pike muscles by TLC. J. Alex. Agric. Res. 26, 197-205.

A.O.A.C. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis”. A.O.A.C.. International, Suite 400 2200 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, Virginia, 2201-3301, USA.

APHA. 1992. American Public Health Association Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. APHA, pp.7-97, 239-250, and 325-422.

Blum PJC. 1997. “Foie gras” Development in birds: physiological and biochemical characteristics. Acad. Agric. Fr. 83, 101-115.

Branen AL. 1979. Interaction of fat oxidation and microbial spoilage in muscle foods. Food Sci, & Tech. 156-161.

Davidson MP. 2001. Chemical preservatives and antimicrobial compounds. In Food microbiology: Fundamentals and frontiers. Edited by M.P. Doyle, L.R. Beuchat & T.J. Montville, pp. 593-627. ASM Press Washington, USA.

Davidson MP, Harrison MA. 2002. Resistance and adaptation of food antimicrobials, sanitizers, and other process controls. Food Tech. 56.

Deis RC. 2002. The complexity of shelf-life stability. Food Product Design, February 2002

Demyer DI, Vandekevchkove P. 1979. Compounds determining pH in dry sausage. Meat Sci. 3, 161-167. doi:10.1016/0309-1740(79)90033-0

El-Deep SH. 1983. Food quality as determined metabolic by-products of microorganisms. M.Sc. Thesis, Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ., Egypt.

El-Moueffak AH, Christian C, Antoine M, Montury M, Demazeau G, Largeteau A, Roy B, Zuber F. 1995. High pressure and pasteurization effect on duck Foiegras. International J. of Food Sci. & Tech. 30, 737-743.

El-Saaid Basuni SS. 1993. Chemistry and technology of fish preservation and processing. “Book’, 35-207, Published by Faculty of Agric., Zagazig Univ. A.R.E. (In Arabic). Epicurean Com. 2005. Chicken liver paste (pate de foie gras) Recipe. Epicurean Com for food and wine lovers, 15/10/2005.

Epicurious Food Dictionary. 1995. The food lover’s companion. Foie gras. Epicurious Food Dictionary, Copyright Barron’s Educational Services, Inc., 1995.

Estevez M, Cava R 2004. Lipid and protein oxidation, release of iron from heme molecule and colour deterioration during refrigerated storage of liver pàtè. Meat Sci. 68, 551-558. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.05.007

FDA. 2002. Food and Drug Administration. Department of Health and Human Services. Part 582-Substances generally recognized as safe-chemical preservatives.Sec. 582-3640.

Fishwish MJ. 1968. Changes in lipids of turkey muscle during storage at chilling and freezing temperature. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 19, 440-445. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740190805

Gray JI, Monahan FT 1992. Measurement of lipid oxidation in meat and meat products. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 3, 315-319. doi:10.1016/S0924-2244(10)80019-6

Guy G, Rousselot PD, Gourichon D. 1991. Comparison des performances quantitativees et qualitatives due gavage de l,oie, du canard mulard et du canard de Barbarie. Jounees de recherches avicoles, Tours, 28 April 1993, 99-105, INRA Station de Recherches Avicoles, Nouzilly.

Guynot ME, Marin S, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ. 2005. An attempt to optimize potassium sorbate use to preserve low pH (4.5-5.5) intermediate moisture bakery products by modelling Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium corylophilum growth. International J. Food Microbiology 101, 169-177. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.11.002 PMid:15862879

Hecht H. 1996. Copper in the muscles and livers of calves and other mammals. Fleischwirtschaft. 76, 492-494.

Jorhem L, Matterson P, Slorach S. 1984. Lead, cadmium, zinc and certain other metals in foods on the Swedish Market. Var Føda, 36 (suppl.3), 139-208.

Nielsen PV, Boer E. 2000. Food preservatives against fungi. In Introduction to food and airborne fungi. Edited by RA, Samson ES, Hoekstra JC, Frisvad & O. Fittenborg. pp. 357-363. Centraallureau Voor Schimunelcultures. Utrecht,The Netherlands.

Pearson D. 1976. The Chemical Analysis of Foods. 7Th ed. Churchil Livingston: Edinburgh, London, N.Y.

Salem FA, Askar AA,El-Manawaty HK, Khazbak AI, El-Dashlouty AA. 1985. Effect of nitrate level on the chemical and microbiological properties of sausage during storage. Egypt. J. Food Sci. 13, 49-56.

Salichon MR, Guy G, Rousselot D, Blum JC. 1994. Composition of the 3 types of Foie gras: goose, mule, duck and muscovy duck foie gras. Ann Zootech. 43, 213-220. doi:10.1051/animres:19940210

SAS. (1998). SAS/STAT user’s Guide Release 6.03 edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, Nc, USA.

SCAH. 2005. Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare. Welfar Aspects of the production of foie gras production. Report of the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare, 10/12/2005.

Schaefer DM. 2002. Fresh beef marketing opportunities due to dietary vitamin E. National Cattle men’s Beef Association and the Cattlemen’s Beef Board.

Sola S, Barrio, Martin TA. 1997. Essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) in pork and duck liver paste produced in Spain. Food Additives and Contaminants 14, 135-141. PMid:9102346

Zuber F. 1996. La pasteurization des foie gras. Viandes Prod. Carnes 17, 151-156.




Copyright (c) 2010 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es