Grasas y Aceites, Vol 61, No 3 (2010)

Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from southern Greece


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.108709

S. A. Vekiari
National Agricultural Research Foundation, Institute of Technology of Agricultural Products, Greece

V. Oreopoulou
National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineer, Greece

Y. Kourkoutas
Department of Molecular Biology & Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece

N. Kamoun
L’Institut de l’Olivier a Tunis, Tunisia

M. Msallem
L’Institut de l’Olivier a Tunis, Tunisia

V. Psimouli
National Technical University of Athens, Greece

D. Arapoglou
National Agricultural Research Foundation, Institute of Technology of Agricultural Products, Greece

Abstract


Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rethymnon in the Greek island of Crete named “Throumbolia”, and “Koroneiki”. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30ºC. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of β-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6) in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation.

Keywords


Chemical characteristics; Olea europaea var. microcarpa alba; Olea europaea var. media oblonga; Virgin olive oil quality

Full Text:


PDF

References


Alygizakis M. 1982. Elaboration and conservation of table olives. Ed. N. Mavromati and Comp. Ltd, Athens.

Angerosa F, Sevili M, Selvaggini R, Taticchi A, Espoto S, Montedoro GF. 2004. Volatile compounds in virgin olive oil: occurrence and their relationship with the quality. J. Chromatogr. A 1054, 17-31. PMid:15553127

Baccouri B, Temime SB, Campeol E, Cioni PL, Daoud D, Zarrouk M. 2007. Application of solid-phase microextraction to the analysis of volatile compounds in virgin olive oils from five new cultivars. Food Chem. 102, 850-856. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.012

Bianchi F, Careri M, Mangia A, Musci M. 2007. Retention indices in the analysis of food aroma volatile compounds in temperature-programmed gas chromatography: Database creation and evaluation of precision and robustness. J. Separ. Sci. 30, 563–572. doi:10.1002/jssc.200600393 PMid:17444225

Biedermann M, Grob K, Morchio G. 1995. On the origin of benzen, toluene, ethylbenzen and xylene in extra virgin olive oil. Further results. Zeit. Lebens. Unter. Forsch. 200, 266-272. doi:10.1007/BF01187517

Boskou D. 1996. Olive oil quality in Boskou D. (Ed.) Olive Oil: Chemistry and Technology, AOCS Press, Champaighn, Illinois, 101-120.

Di Giovacchino L, Solinas M, Miccoli M.1994. Effect of extraction systems on the quality of virgin olive oil. J. Am.Oil Chem. Soc. 70, 1189-1194. doi:10.1007/BF02540535

Garcia JM, Seller S, Perez – Camino MC. 1996. Influence of fruit ripening on olive oil quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 3516 – 3520. doi:10.1021/jf950585u

Haddada FM, Manai H, Daoud D, Fernandez X, Lizzani - Cuvelier L, Zarrouk M. 2007. Profiles of volatile compounds from some monovarietal Tunisian virgin olive oils. Comparison with French PDO. Food Chem. 103, 467-476. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.023

Kalua CM, Allen MS, Bedgood JDR, Bishop AG, Prenzler PD, Robards K. 2007. Olive oil volatile compounds, flavour development and quality: A critical review. Food Chem. 100, 273-286. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.059

Kandylis P, Koutinas AA. 2008. Extremely low temperature fermentations of grape must by potatoes supported yeast-strain AXAZ-1. A Contribution isperformed to catalysis of alcoholic fermentation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 3317–3327. doi:10.1021/jf073273n PMid:18422329

Kanavouras A, Kiritsakis A, Hernandez RJ. 2005. Comparative study on volatile analysis of extra virgin oil by dynamic headspace and solid phase microextraction. Food Chem. 90, 69-79. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.03.025

Kiritsakis AK. 1998. Flavor components of olive oil - a review. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 673-681. doi:10.1007/s11746-998-0205-6

Kiritsakis A. 2007. Olive oil as functional food in Kiritsakis A.(Ed.) Olive oil: Conventional and biological / table olives, olive paste. Thes/niki, ISBN 978-960-631-714-9, 621-644.

Kourkoutas, Y., Kandylis, P., Panas, P., Dooley, J. S. G., Nigam, P.and Koutinas, A. A. 2006. Evaluation of freeze-dried kefir coculture as starter in feta-type cheese production. Appl. Environm. Microb., 72, 6124-6135. doi:10.1128/AEM.03078-05 PMid:16957238    PMCid:1563647

Koutsaftakis A, Kotsifaki F, Stefanoudaki E. 1999. Effect of extraction system, stage of ripeness and kneading temperature on the sterol composition of virgin olive oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 3-7. doi:10.1007/s11746-999-0188-y

Koutsaftakis A, Kotsifaki F, Stefanoudaki E. 2000. Sensory and chemical profiles of three European olive varieties (Olea europea L.); an approach for the characterisation and authentication of the extracted oils. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80, 381-389. doi:10.1002/1097-0010(200002)80:3<381::AID-JSFA535>3.0.CO;2-4

Mallouchos A, Skandamis P, Loukatos P, Komaitis M, Koutinas AA, Kanellaki M. 2003a. Volatile compounds of wines produced by cells immobilized on grape skins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 3060-3066. doi:10.1021/jf026177p PMid:12720392

Matos LC, Cunha SC, Amaral JS, Pereira JA, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, Oliveira BPP. 2007. Chemometric characterization of three varietal olive oils (Cvs. Cobrancosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) extracted from olives with different maturation indices. Food Chem. 102, 406-414. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.031

Montedoro G, Servili M, Baldioli M, Selvaggini R, Miniati N, Macchioni A. 1993. Simple and hydrolysable compounds in virgin olive oil.3. Spectroscopic Characterizations of the Secoiridoid Derivatives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41, 2228-2234. doi:10.1021/jf00035a076

Montedoro G, Tatticchi A, Esposto S, Selvaggini R, Urbani S, Servili M. 2007. Antioxidants in virgin olive oil. Olea 26, 5-13.

Morales MT, Rios JJ, Aparicio RJ. 1997. Changes in the volatile composition of virgin olive oil during oxidation: flavours and off - flavors. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 2666-2673. doi:10.1021/jf960585+

Morales MT, Luna G, Aparicio R. 2005. Comparative study of virgin olive oil sensory defects. Food Chem. 91, 293-301. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.06.011

Poiana M, Mincione A. 2004. Fatty acids evolution and composition of olive oils extracted from different olive cultivars grown in Calabrian area, Grasas Aceites 55, 282-290. doi:10.3989/gya.2004.v55.i3.190

Salvador MD, Aranda F, Fregapane G. 2001. Influence of fruit ripening on “Cornicabra” virgin olive oil quality. A study of four successive crop seasons. Food Chem. 73, 45-53. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00276-4

Servilli M, Montedoro G. 2002. Contribution of phenolic compounds to virgin olive oil quality. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Techn. 104, 602-613. doi:10.1002/1438-9312(200210)104:9/10<602::AID-EJLT602>3.0.CO;2-X

Servilli M, Selvaggini R, Esposto S, Taticchi A, Montedoro G, Morozzi G. 2004. Health and sensory properties of virgin olive oil hydrophillic phenols: agronomic and technological aspects of production that affect their occurrence in the oil. J. Chrom. A. 1054, 113-127.

Simopoulos AP. 2003. Importance of the ratio of omega – 6 / 0mega – 3 essential fatty acids: evolutionary aspects. In: World Review of nutrition and dietetics, 92 (Omega - 6/ Omega – 3 Essential fatty acid ratio: The Scientific Evidence): 1-174. Karger, ISBN 3805576404.

Stefanoudaki E, Kotsifaki F, Koutsaftakis A. 1999. Classification of virgin olive oils of the two major Cretan cultivars based on their fatty acid composition. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 623-626. doi:10.1007/s11746-999-0013-7

Temime SB, Campeol E, Cioni PL, Daoud D, Zarrouk M. 2006. Volatile compounds from Chetoui olive oil and variations induced by growing area. Food Chem. 99, 315-325. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.046

Temime, S. B., Manal, H., Methenni, K., Baccouri, B., Abaza, L., Daoud, D., Casas, S. and Bueno, E.O. 2008. Sterolic composition of Chetoui virgin olive oil: Influence of geographical origin. Food Chem. 110, 368-374. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.012

Therios J. 2006. Olive varieties in Therios J. (Ed.) Olive Production, Gartaganis Publications, 2nd ed., Thessaloniki, Greece, 305-307.

Torres MM, Maestri DM. 2006 Chemical composition of Arbequina virgin olive oil in relation to extraction and storage conditions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86, 2311-17. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2614

The Commission of the European Communities, Regulation No. 2568/91, (1991). On the Characteristics of olive oil and olive-residue oil and on the relevant methods of analysis. Official Journal of European Communities, No L248.

Tsimidou M, Karacostas KX. 1993. Geographical classification of Greek virgin olive oil by non-parametric multivariate evaluation of fatty acid composition. J. Sci. Food Agric. 62, 253-257. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740620308

Vekiari SA, Koutsaftakis A. 2002. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content. Grasas Aceites 53, 304-308. doi:10.3989/gya.2002.v53.i3.321

Vichi S, Pizzale L, Conte LS, Buxaderas S, Lopez - Tamames E. 2003. Solid-phase microextraction in the analysis of virgin olive oil volatile fraction: Modifications induced by oxidation and suitable markers of oxidative status. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 6564-6571. doi:10.1021/jf030268k PMid:14558779

Vichi S, Pizzale L, Conte LS, Buxaderas S, Lopez - Tamames E. 2005. Simultaneous determination of volatile and semi-volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in virgin olive oil by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. J. Chrom. A. 1090, 146-154. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.007 PMid:16196143

Vichi S, Guadoyol JM, Caixach J, Lopez - Tamames E, Buxaderas S. 2006. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of virgin olive oil by headspace solidphase microextration coupled to gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. J. Chrom. A. 1125, 117-123. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.05.029 PMid:16756984

Vichi S, Guadoyol JM, Caixach J, Lopez - Tamames E, Buxaderas S. 2007. Comparative study of different extraction techniques for the analysis of virgin olive oil aroma. Food Chem. 1105, 1171-1178. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.02.018

Zarrouk W, Haddada FM, Baccouri B, Oueslati I, Taamalli W, Fernandez X, Lizzani - Cuvelier D, Daoud D, Zarrouk M. 2008. Characterization of virgin olive oil from Southern Tunisia. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 110, 81-88. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200700085




Copyright (c) 2010 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es