Grasas y Aceites, Vol 60, No 4 (2009)

Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol contents of the oils of various poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds.

Hakan Erinç
Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University

Aziz Tekin
Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University

Mehmet Musa Özcan
Faculty of Agriculture, Selçuk University


The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The main fatty acids in poppy seed oils were linoleic (687.6-739.2 g kg-1), oleic (141.3-192.8 g kg-1) and palmitic (76.8-92.8 g kg-1). The oils contained an appreciable amount of -tocopherol (195.37-280.85 mg kg-1), with a mean value of 261.31 mg kg-1 and α-tocopherol (21.99-45.83 mg kg-1), with a mean value of 33.03 mg kg-1. The concentrations of total sterol ranged from 1099.84 mg kg-1 (K.pembe) to 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sınıf beyaz), with a mean value of 2916.20 mg kg-1. The major sterols were -sitosterol, ranging from 663.91 to 3244.39 mg kg-1; campesterol, ranging from 228.59 to 736.50 mg kg-1; and Δ5-avenasterol, ranging from 103.90 to 425.02 mg kg-1. The studied varieties of poppy seeds from Turkey were found to be a potential source of valuable oil.


Fatty acid; Oil; Poppy; Sterol; Tocopherol

Full Text:



Allam SSH. 2001. Utilization of some untraditional sources of high oleic acid oils for improving vegetable oils stability. La Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse 78, 337-341.

Anonymous. 2003. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Method Am 2-93, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL (USA).

Anonymous.1987. Standard Methods for Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivates, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 7 th ed., IUPAC Method 2.301, Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Anonymous. 2003. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Method Ce 8-89, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL (USA).

Anonymous. 2003. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Method Ch 6-91, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL (USA).

Aparicio R and McIntyre PS. 1998. Olive oil authentication. In: FAIM: food authentication—sigues and methodologies, ed. By Lees M, Eurofins, Nantes, France, pp 210–298.

Baydar H and Turgut <. 1999. Variations of fatty acid compositions according to some morphological and physiological properties and ecological regions in oil seed plants. Turkish Journal of Agriculture Forestry 23, 81-86.

Bozan B and Temelli F. 2003. Extraction of poppy seed oil using supercritical CO2. Journal Food Science 68, 422-426. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb05688.x

Bozan B and Temelli F. 2008. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of flax, safflower and poppy seed and seed oils. Bioresource Technology 99, 6354–6359. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.12.009 PMid:18198133

Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2005. Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oils Codex-Stan 210 issued by the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program, via delle Terme di Caracalla 00153, Rome.

Colombini M, Vanoni MC, Amelotti G. 1979. Olio di noci, nocciole, mandorle, avocado: composizione sterolica. La Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse 56, 392- 393.

Duke JA. 1989. CRC Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press, Boca Ratan, FL, pp 240-243.

Femenia A, Chen YC, Mulet A, Canellas J. 1995. Chemical composition of bitter and sweet apricot kernels. Journal of Agricuture and Food Chemistry 43, 356-361. doi:10.1021/jf00050a018

Green AG. 1986. Genetic control of polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed oil. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 72, 654-666. doi:10.1007/BF00289004

Haris HC, Mc. Willam JR, Bofinger VG. 1980. Prediction of quality of sunflower from teriperature probabilities in eastern Australia. Australian Journal Agriculture Research 31, 477-488. doi:10.1071/AR9800477

Kamal-Eldin A and Andersson RA. 1997. A multivariate study of the correlation between tocopherol content and fatty acid composition in vegetable oils. Journal of American Oil Chemistry Society 74, 375-380. doi:10.1007/s11746-997-0093-1

Karaefe B. 1992. Ha7ha7 tohum ya≈ı bile7iminin özelliklerinin incelenmesi ve de≈erlendirilmesi (Chemical properties of poppy seed oil). Istanbul Univ. Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, MSc Thesis, Istanbul, Turkey .

Kryzmanski J and Jonsson R. 1989. Poppy. In: Robbelon G, Downey RK, Ashri A(eds.), Oil Crops of the World. Their breeding and utilization. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill, Inc., p389.

Luthra R and Singh N. 1989. Changes in fatty acid composition accompanying the deposition of triacyglycerols in developing seeds of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Plant Science 60, 55-60. doi:10.1016/0168-9452(89)90043-5

Lopez Ortiz CM, Prats Moya MS, Berenguer Navarro V. 2006. A rapid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of -sitositerol and tocopherol homologues in vegetable oils. Journal of Food Composition and Analyses 19,141-149. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2005.06.001

Nergiz C and Ötle7 S. 1994. The proximate composition and some minor constituents of poppy seeds. Journal of the Science Food and Agriculture 66, 117-120. doi:10.3989/gya.2006.v57.i2.33

Özcan M and Atalay Ç, 2006. Determination of seed and oil properties of some poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) varieties. Grasas y Aceites 57, 169-174. doi:10.1002/lipi.19850870609

Raie MY and Salma I. 1985. Sesamum indicum and Papaver somniferum oils. Fette Seifen Anstrichmittel 87, 246-247. doi:10.1002/lipi.19850870609

Ryan E, Galvin K, O’Connor TP, Maguire AR. 2007. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopheral content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes. Plants Food Human Nutrition 62, 85-91. doi:10.1007/s11130-007-0046-8 PMid:17594521

Savage GP, McNeil DL, Dutta PC. 1997. Lipid composition and oxidative stability of oils in hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) grown in New Zealand. Journal of American Oil Chemistry Society 74, 755-759. doi:10.1007/s11746-997-0214-x

Singh SP, Shukla S, Khanna KR, Dixit BS, Banerji R. 1998.Variation of major fatty acids in F8 generation of Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum x Papaver setigerum) genotypes. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 76,168-172. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199802)76:2<168::AID-JSFA919>3.0.CO;2-X

Smith CR. 1970. Occurrence of unusual fatty acids in plants. In: Progr. Chem. Fats Other Lipids (ed.Holman,R.T.), Vol.VI, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, pp 137-177.

Srinivas H and Narasinga Rao MS. 1981. Studies on the proteins of poppy seed (Papaver somniferum L.). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 29, 1325. doi:10.1021/jf00108a033 PMid:7320338

Weihrauch JL and Gardner JM. 1978. Sterol content of foods of plant origin. Journal of American Dietetic Association 73, 39-44.

Yücel SO. 2005. Determination of conjugated linolenic acid content of selected oil seeds grown in Turkey. Journal of American Oil Chemistry Society 82, 893- 897. doi:10.1007/s11746-005-1161-7

Zwarts L, Savage GP, McNeil DL. 1999. Fatty acid content of New Zealand-grown walnuts (Juglans regia L.). International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 50, 189-194. doi:10.1080/096374899101229 PMid:10627834

Copyright (c) 2009 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support