Effect of crushing temperature on virgin olive oil quality and composition
Keywords:Crushing, Fatty acid, Malaxation, Quality, Sterol, Volatile
The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of a modified crushing process and kneading operation on the quality parameters, volatile compounds, and the fatty acid and sterol profiles of virgin olive oil from the Edremit yaglik variety. In the study, olive oil samples were produced in two different processes. The first one was produced without malaxation and the second one was produced with the malaxing process. During crushing, the effect of different temperatures was tested. The results demonstrate that different crushing temperatures generally did not affect the amount of free fatty acids, or peroxide value. Total phenol contents were positively affected by the additional malaxation process. Fatty acids and sterol composition were not significantly altered at different crushing temperatures or during the subsequent malaxation application. PCA enabled a clear classification of the oils obtained from different processing techniques.
Amirante P, Clodoveo ML, Tamborrino A, Leone A, Dugo G. 2008a. Oxygen concentration control during olive oil extraction process: A New System to emphasize the organoleptic and healthy properties of virgin olive oil. Acta Hort. 949, 473–480. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.949.70
Amirante P, Clodoveo ML, Tamborrino A, Leone A. 2008b. New designer malaxer to improve thermal exchange enhancing virgin olive oil quality. Acta Hort. 949, 455–462. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.949.67
Angerosa F, Mostallino R, Basti C, Vito R. 2001. Influence of malaxation temperature and time on the quality of virgin olive oils. Food Chem. 72, 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00194-1
AOCS 2003. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL (USA).
Aparicio R, Roda L, Albi MA, Gutiérrez F. 1999. Effect of various compounds on virgin olive oil stability measured by Rancimat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 4150–4155. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9812230 PMid:10552782
Caponio F, Alloggio V, Gomes T. 1999. Phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil: influence of paste preparation techniques. Food Chem. 64, 203–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00146-0
Caponio F, Catalano P. 2001. Hammer crushers vs disk crushers: the influence of working temperature on the quality and preservation of virgin olive oil. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 213, 219–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170100364
Caponio F, Gomes T. 2001. Influence of olive crushing temperature on phenols in olive oils. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 212, 156–159. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170000225
Caponio F, Pasqualone A, Gomes T, Catalano P. 2002. Use of HPSEC analysis of polar compounds to assess the influence of crushing temperature on virgin olive oil's quality. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 215, 534–537. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-002-0620-0
Caponio F, Gomes T, Summo C, Pasqualone A. 2003. Influence of the type of olive-crusher used on the quality of extra virgin olive oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 105, 201–206. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200390041
Ceballos C, Moyano M J, Vicario IM, Alba J, Heredia FJ. 2003. Chromatic evolution of virgin olive oils submitted to an accelerated oxidation test. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80, 257– 262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-003-0686-0
Fiori F, Di Lecce G, Boselli E, Pieralisi G, Frega NG. 2014. Effects of olive paste fast preheating on the quality of extra virgin olive oil during storage. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 58, 511–518.
Gallina-Toschi T, Cerretani L, Bendini A, Bonoli-Carbognin M, Lercker G. 2005. Oxidative stability and phenolic content of virgin olive oil: an analytical approach by traditional and high resolution techniques. J. Sep. Sci. 28, 859–870. https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200500044
García AMI, Fregapane G, Salvador MD. 2011. Effect of crushing on olive paste and virgin olive oil minor components. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 232, 441–451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-010-1406-4
Giovacchino DL, Sestili S, Di Vincenzo D. 2002. Influence of olive processing on virgin olive oil quality. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 104, 587–601. https://doi.org/10.1002/1438-9312(200210)104:9/10<587::AID-EJLT587>3.0.CO;2-M
Gutfinger T. 1981. Polyphenols in olive oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 58, 966–968. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02659771
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 1987. Standard Methods for Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivates, 7th Edn, IUPAC Method 2.301, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Palo Alto, Calif., USA.
Kalua CM, Allen MS, Bedgood Jr, DR, Bishop AG, Prenzler PD, Robards K. 2007. Olive oil volatile compounds, flavour development and quality: A critical review. Food Chem. 100, 273–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.059
Koutsaftakis A, Kotsifaki F, Papamanolioudaki A, Stefanoudaki E. 2000. Effect of olive crushing parameters on the qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oil. Acta Hort. 586, 645– 648. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.586.137
Leone A, Esposto S, Tamborrino A, Romaniello R, Taticchi A, Urbani S, Servili M. 2016. Using a tubular heat exchanger to improve the conditioning process of the olivepaste: Evaluation of yield and olive oil quality. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 118, 308–317. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400616
Lercker G, Frega N, Bocci F, Servidio G. 1994. "Veiled" extra-virgin olive oils: Dispersion response related to oil quality. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71, 657–658. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02540597
Luaces P, Pérez GP, García JM, Sanz C. 2005. Effects of heat treatments of olive fruit on pigment composition of virgin olive oil. Food Chem. 90, 169–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.03.035
Morales MT, Luna G, Aparicio R. 2005. Comparative study of virgin olive oil sensory defects. Food Chem. 91, 293–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.06.011
Murkovic M, Lechner S, Pietzka A, Bratacos M, Katzogiannos E. 2004. Analysis of minor components in olive oil. J. Biochem. Bioph. Meth. 61, 155–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbbm.2004.04.002 PMid:15560931
Ortega-García F, Blanco S, Peinado MÁ, Peragón J. 2008. Polyphenol oxidase and its relationship with oleuropein concentration in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea) cv. 'Picual' trees during fruit ripening. Tree Physiol. 28, 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/28.1.45
Preziuso SM, Serio MGD, Biasone A., Vito R, Mucciarella MR, Giovacchino LD. 2010. Influence of olive crushing methods on the yields and oil characteristics. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 112, 1345–1355. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201000303
Raffo A, Bucci R, D'Aloise A, Pastore G. 2015. Combined effects of reduced malaxation oxygen levels and storage time on extra-virgin olive oil volatiles investigated by a novel chemometric approach. Food Chem. 182, 257–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.128
Servili M, Baldioli M, Montedoro GF. 1993. Phenolic composition of virgin olive oil in relationship to some chemical and physical aspects of malaxation in: II International Symposium on Olive Growing 356, 331–336.
Veillet S, Tomao V, Bornard I, Ruiz K, Chemat F. 2009. Chemical changes in virgin olive oils as a function of crushing systems: Stone mill and hammer crusher. Cr. Chim. 12, 895–904. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2009.01.003
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.