Grasas y Aceites 2022-03-31T12:31:29+02:00 Grasas y Aceites, Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites </strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de la Grasa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de la Grasa</a>, peer-reviewed and devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the broad field of lipids, especially edible fats and oils from different origins, including non acyl lipids from microbial origin relevant to the food industry. It publishes full research articles, research notes, reviews as well as information on references, patents, and books.</p> <p>The journal publishes original articles on basic or practical research, as well as review articles on lipid related topics in food science and technology, biology, (bio)chemistry, medical science, nutrition, (bio)technology, processing and engineering. Topics at the interface of basic research and applications are encouraged. Manuscripts related to by-products from the oil industry and the handling and treatment of the wastewaters are also welcomed.</p> <p>Topics of special interest:</p> <p>-Lipid analysis, including sensory analysis<br />-Oleochemistry, including lipase modified lipids<br />-Biochemistry and molecular biology of lipids, including genetically modified oil crops and micro-organisms<br />-Lipids in health and disease, including functional foods and clinical studies<br />-Technical aspects of oil extraction and refining<br />-Processing and storage of oleaginous fruit, especially olive pickling<br />-Agricultural practices in oil crops, when affecting oil yield or quality</p> <p>Founded in 1950 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (2 years): <strong>1.650</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (5 years): <strong>1.641</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>49</strong>/74 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>114</strong>/144 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2020: <strong>0.34</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>51</strong>/77 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>123</strong>/163 (Q3, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>0.00060</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>0.233</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Oxidative stability of soybean and corn oils enriched with Pluchea quitoc hydroalcoholic extract 2022-03-23T10:26:06+01:00 M.M. Alves E.J. Coutinho A.F.N.V. Klein M.N. Santos J.T. Facco M.S. Rosa M.M. Fuzinatto S.M. Martelli A.R. Fiorucci C.A.L. Cardoso E. Simionatto <p>Soybean and corn oils are among the most popular vegetable oils, and are ingredients which are widely used in cooking and in the food industry. These oils contain many unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, which makes them easily oxidized by oxygen. Extensive efforts are being made to prevent or minimize vegetable oil oxidation through the development of antioxidants. Phenolic antioxidants which are present in some extracts can be used as food additives to prevent lipid oxidation. In this study chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GC) of the&nbsp;<em>Pluchea quitoc</em>&nbsp;hydroalcoholic extract were performed. The content of phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant properties against radicals 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) were also evaluated. The effect of samples prepared with soybean and corn oils enriched with&nbsp;<em>Pluchea quitoc</em>&nbsp;hydroalcoholic extract was determined and compared with samples of these oils which were free of antioxidants and with samples containing the synthetic antioxidant BHT. The results showed potential for application of the extract. A high content of phenolic compounds (314 milligrams of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract) and good IC50 values were detected for the inhibition of the radicals DPPH and ABTS (13.2 µg·mL<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;and 5.6 µg·mL<sup>-1</sup>). In the evaluation of the oxidative stability of the oils enriched with this extract, it was found that at 1% concentration it was possible to obtain values of induction period (IP) close to the samples with added BHT.</p> 2022-03-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) A comparative evaluation of chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from different chemotypes of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl 2022-03-31T10:31:57+02:00 N. Wan Y. Li X.Y. Huang Y.H. Li Q. Zheng Z.F. Wu <p>The purpose of this study is to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of&nbsp;<em>Cinnamomum camphora</em>&nbsp;(L.) Presl leaves (CCPL) from 5 different habitats in China by GC-MS, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against 3 foodborne pathogens, using a paper disc diffusion method. A total of 30 compounds were identified with a predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes, including linalool (42.65%-96.47%), eucalyptol (39.07%-55.35%) and camphor (26.08%) as well as monoterpene hydrocarbons such as sabinene (6.18%-12.93%) and α-terpineol (8.19%-13.81%). Through cluster analysis, CCPL from 5 different habitats can be well divided into 2 categories. Combining with principal component analysis, the habitats can be better correlated with the chemical constituents of the essential oils. The antimicrobial activities of 5 extracted essential oils against 2 gram-negative bacteria and one gram-positive bacteria were assessed. It showed that the essential oil extracted from the CCPL harvested in Jinxi had the strongest antibacterial property. The results of this study provided basis for resource identification of CCPL and quality difference identification of essential oils. Research on the antibacterial properties of several pathogenic strains has proved its application value as a natural food preservative.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Antioxidant activity, polyphenolic composition and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of tea seed oil 2022-03-31T11:00:30+02:00 H.K. Ruto J.O. Yugi S.O. Ochanda C. Bii <p>The polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of tea seed oil from&nbsp;<em>C. sinensis</em>&nbsp;TRFK 301/5 (green colored) and TRFK 306 (purple colored) and&nbsp;<em>C. oleifera</em>&nbsp;were evaluated. The total polyphenolic content, total catechins and catechin fractions were significantly different in the oils.&nbsp;<em>C. oleifera</em>&nbsp;contained significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher amounts of catechins and polyphenols than&nbsp;<em>C. sinensis</em>.&nbsp;<em>C. oleifera</em>&nbsp;also exhibited a higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (18.81 ± 0.46%) compared to&nbsp;<em>C. sinensis</em>&nbsp;(TRFK 306; 15.98 ± 0.13 and TRFK 301/5; 14.73 ± 0.47%). The antimicrobial activities of tea seed oil and two selected oils (olive and eucalyptus oil), were also evaluated against&nbsp;<em>Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus</em>,&nbsp;<em>Candinda albicans</em>,&nbsp;<em>Cryptococcus neoformans</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Trichophyton mentagrophytes</em>.&nbsp;<em>S. aureus</em>&nbsp;was significantly inhibited by the oils compared to&nbsp;<em>E. coli</em>. The oils inhibited the growth of&nbsp;<em>T. mentagrophytes</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>C. albicans,</em>&nbsp;although they had no effect on&nbsp;<em>C. neoformans</em>. Tea seed oil is a potential source of beneficial phytochemicals and potent antimicrobial agents.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Textural and rheological properties of soybean oil organogels structured with polyglycerol and propylene glycol esters during storage 2022-03-22T13:08:35+01:00 N.E. Buitimea-Cantúa S.O. Serna-Saldívar E. Pérez-Carrillo T. Jordânia-Silva D. Barrera-Arrellano G.V. Buitimea-Cantúa <p>Organogels have emerged as an alternative to the intake of saturated fats. Organogels of soybean oil (SBO) structured with polyglycerol esters (PGE) or propylene glycol esters (PPGE) at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0%) were formulated. Both emulsifiers at 4% (w/w) concentrations were able to form solid-like organogels and showed thixotropy and low mechanical resistance when compression forces were applied. However, the SBO/PGE (4%) organogels presented lower values for flow curves and micrographs showed a more organized network compared to the SBO/PPGE at 4%. However, higher flow curve values, larger crystals, and mechanical resistance on compression were observed after a two-month storage period of SBO/PPGE compared to SBO/PGE organogels. Both organogels have the potential to be used for diverse food applications although the SBO/PGE was more stable throughout storage.</p> 2022-03-22T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Solvent-free synthesis of oleic acid-based wax esters using recyclable acidic deep eutectic solvent 2022-03-31T12:31:29+02:00 Z. Li W. Liu G. Yang <p>Wax esters have been widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Oleic acid wax esters can be used to replace spermaceti oil or jojoba oil. In this work, the acidic deep eutectic solvent (DES) composed of choline chloride and&nbsp;<em>p</em>-toluenesulfonic acid (1:4, mol/mol) was used as an efficient recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of oleic acid-based liquid wax esters through an esterification reaction. The esterification conversion of cetyl alcohol reached 99.1% under the following optimal reaction conditions: 5% DES as catalyst, molar ratio of fatty acid to alcohol of 1.3:1 and reaction temperature of 70&nbsp;<sup>o</sup>C for 3h. The catalyst recovery experiments showed that this low-price acidic DES catalyst could be reused five times with uniform activity. Moreover, DES-catalyzed solvent-free esterification could be applied in the preparation of other oleic acid-based wax esters and excellent conversions (&gt; 96%) could be obtained under such mild conditions.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Physico-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of oils from different Peruvian castor bean ecotypes 2022-03-31T11:39:04+02:00 L. Huamán S. Huincho E. Aguirre G. Rodriguez A. Brandolini A. Hidalgo <p>The aim of this research was to assess the physico-chemical properties and shelf-life of oils press-extracted at two temperatures (60 °C and 80 °C) from five Peruvian castor bean ecotypes. A wide variation for all traits was observed. Low acidity index, low peroxide index and absence of&nbsp;<em>p</em>-anisidine were recorded. The total tocopherol contents ranged from 798 to 1040 mg/kg. A higher antioxidant capacity was detected in methanolic extracts than in hexane extract. From the Rancimat performed at 150-170 °C, the predicted shelf-life at 25 °C ranged from 0.15 to 8.93 years; the higher extraction temperature led to a longer shelf-life, probably because of enzyme inactivation.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) The effects of electrical and ultrasonic pretreatments on the moisture, oil content, color, texture, sensory properties and energy consumption of microwave-fried zucchini slices 2022-03-30T09:29:34+02:00 A. Rayman Ergün <p>In this study, the effects of a moderate electrical field application and two different blanching methods (conventional and ultrasound) on the frying (deep-frying in oil at 180 °C for 6 minutes and compared to the microwave (400W)) of zucchini slices were investigated. Microwave-fried samples presented a lower moisture content than deep fried ones. The moderate electrical field significantly reduced the oil content before the microwave frying. Greenness (–a*), which is important for the zucchini samples, was found at its best (-3.25) in the combination group of moderate electrical field pre-treated, ultrasound blanched, and microwave fried. Gumminess, cohesiveness, and fracturability of the zucchini slices decreased while chewiness, springiness, and resilience increased after microwave frying. The scores of the sensory test were higher for the ultrasonic blanching and microwave fried sample groups. Besides, these electrical methods were found more advantageous in terms of energy consumption.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Biodiesel production enhanced by ultrasound-assisted esterification and transesterification of inedible olive oil 2022-03-30T13:20:25+02:00 M.-T. Golmakani L. Dehghan N. Rahimizad <p>In the first phase of this study, inedible olive oil with different initial free fatty acid concentrations (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0%) was processed through acid-catalyzed esterification. Various heating methods were used for this purpose. The ultrasound-assisted esterification and traditional magnetic stirrer-assisted esterification methods were similar to each other in terms of their effects on free fatty acid reduction. However, the ultrasound reaction time was significantly shorter than that of the traditional magnetic stirrer. In the second phase of this study, biodiesel production was carried out through the ultrasound-assisted transesterification of inedible olive oil. Independent variables were, namely, ultrasound power level (30, 90, and 150 W), methanol/oil mole ratio (3, 9, and 15), catalyst concentration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%), ultrasound time (15, 30, and 45 min), and reaction temperature (45, 55, and 65 °C), which affected the yield indices and physicochemical constants of the produced biodiesel. The purest biodiesel (98.95%) and the highest amount of yield (92.69%) were observed when using an ultrasound power level of 90 W, a methanol/oil mole ratio of 9, a catalyst concentration of 1.0%, an ultrasound time of 30 min, and a reaction temperature of 55 °C. Optimizing the reaction conditions of the ultrasound operation can effectively increase the biodiesel yield (92.69%), while reducing the energy consumption (4.775 kWh/kg) and shortening the reaction time (30 min), compared to the traditional magnetic stirrer (77.28%, 2.17 kWh/kg, and 120 min, respectively). Therefore, ultrasound-assisted transesterification can serve as an effective alternative because of its fast and economic operation for making biodiesel out of inedible olive oil.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fatty acid composition of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in the flesh of the thick-lipped grey mullet (Chelon labrosus) living in Tunisian geothermal water and seawater: A comparative study 2022-03-30T12:33:34+02:00 I. Rabeh K. Telahigue T. Hajji S. Kheriji A. Besbes R. Besbes M. El Cafsi <p>This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of rearing conditions on the composition of different phospholipid (PLs) classes and triacylglycerols (TAG) of the thick-lipped grey mullet (<em>Chelon labrosus</em>), a muscle originating from seawater and geothermal water. The major fatty acids in the examined lipid classes of the two fish groups were palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1n-9), linoleic acid (C18:2n-6)<strong>,</strong>&nbsp;arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3). The analyses demonstrated that the fatty acid profiles of the PL classes in the seawater fish group were characterized by the predominance of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). By contrast, in geothermal fish, the distribution of PUFA series proportions differed between the phospholipid fractions. It was found PUFA n-3 was particularly abundant in PS and PI, while the n-6 series dominated the PC and PE PUFA group. Nonetheless, it was found that neutral lipid fatty acids were characterized by saturated fatty acids (SFA) followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the seawater fish and by PUFA in the geothermal fish. The results presented here give useful information on the role of lipid classes in the physiological adaptation of&nbsp;<em>C. labrosus</em>&nbsp;which can serve for the optiminzation of these aquaculture systems.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Effect of tunisian pomegranate peel extract on the oxidative stability of corn oil under heating conditions 2022-03-30T09:51:00+02:00 A. Mnari Bhouri H. Ghnimi Z. Amri N. Koubaa M. Hammami <p>The effect of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the oxidative stability of corn oil during heating was studied. Oxidation was followed by determining peroxide value (PV), <em>p</em>-anisidine value (<em>p</em>-AV), free fatty acid value (FFA), conjugated dienes (CD), conjugated trienes hydroperoxides (CT) and the calculated total oxidation value (TOTOX). Polyphenol (TPC) and <em>ortho</em>-diphenol (TOPC) contents as well as the antioxidant activity of each oil sample were evaluated before and after heating. PPE showed a significant inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation. Heating samples for 8 hours supplemented by PPE to a level of 1000 ppm resulted in the highest significant decreases in investigated indices compared to the control and BHT values. It was concluded that the antioxidant activity of PPE delayed oxidation and can be used in the food industry to prevent and reduce lipid deterioration in oil.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Investigation on chemical composition, antioxidant activity and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein of endemic Ferula longipedunculata Peşmen 2022-03-30T11:52:02+02:00 A. Göçeri İ. Demirtaş M.H. Alma Ş. Adem Z.A. Kasra F. Gül A. Uzun <p>The essential and fatty oils were investigated and a quantitative analysis of the root, green and stem parts of&nbsp;<em>F. Longipedunculata</em>&nbsp;was performed by GC-MS and HPLC-TOF/MS and their antioxidant (DPPH method) activities and potential binding of phytochemicals against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid were determined using Molegro Virtual Docker software. In the root part of the plant, the prominent components of oil were&nbsp;<em>β</em>-phellandrene (53.46%), ocimene (6.79%), 4-terpineol (5.94%) and santalol (5.03%). According to the quantitative results, vanillic acid (141.35 mg/kg), ferulic acid (126.19 mg/kg) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (119.92 mg/kg) were found in the roots; quercetin-3-<em>β</em>-<em>O</em>-glycoside (1737.70 mg/kg), quercetin (531.35 mg/kg) and ferulic acid (246.22 mg/kg) were found in the in the green part; and fumaric acid (2100.21 mg/kg), quercetin-3-<em>β</em>-<em>O</em>-glycoside (163.24 mg/kg), vanillic acid (57.59 mg/kg) were detected in the stem part. The antioxidant activity of all parts of the plant was higher than the control with BHT. Silibinin, rutin, and neohesperidin exhibited a stronger affinity than nucleotides. In the silico analysis, many of the phytochemicals were attached with strong hydrogen-bonds and electrostatic effects to the amino acids to which nucleotides are bound. The results indicated that the plant showed antioxidant effects and can be effective against SARS-CoV-2 thanks to the different phytochemical compounds it contains.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Ultrasound-assisted extraction of red mombin seed oil (Spondias purpurea L.): phenolic profile, fatty acid profile and chemical characterization of the cake, residue from the oil extraction 2022-03-11T11:20:30+01:00 D.J.M. Abreu E.E.N. Carvalho E.V.B. Vilas Boas E.R. Asquieri C. Damiani <p>The ultrasound-assisted method was used to extract oil from the red mombin seed, mainly aiming to analyze yield. A multivariate analysis served to define optimized parameters (6.46 minutes and S/S ratio of 1:23.10 mass:volume) for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with the objective of maximizing yield, using the response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability graph with central variables and axial points determined by the central composite rotatable design (CCRD). In addition to the optimization of oil extraction, oil was chemically characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity and nutritional aspects to test the quality and chemical characteristics of red mombin seed oil extraction residue (cake). Analyses showed 32% unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitoleic acid, linolelaidic acid, and α-linolenic acid, and the presence of phenolic compounds, especially catechin. High dietary fiber content and the presence of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, vanillin, and gallic acid, were found in the cake, which allows the possibility of incorporating this material into food products.</p> 2022-03-11T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Assessment of obtaining sunflower oil from enzymatic aqueous extraction using protease enzymes 2022-03-10T09:54:29+01:00 D.S. de Aquino C. Roders A.M. Vessoni N. Stevanato C. da Silva <p>Th<strong>e</strong>&nbsp;aim of this work was to maximize the enzymatic aqueous extraction (EAE) of sunflower seed oil using protease enzymes from the evaluation of various temperatures, pH and enzyme concentrations, using a Box-Behnken experimental design. The effect of a thermal pre-treatment of sunflower seeds on free oil yield (FOY) and oil quality was also determined. In the experimental range adopted, a lower temperature (40 °C) provided higher FOY values, as well as the intermediate pH (8.00) and maximum enzyme concentration (9% v/v). Thermal pre-treatment provided an increase in FOY in the initial extraction times (60 to 180 min) and decreased of the extraction time of 4 to 3 h to obtain the highest FOY value (~16%). The fatty acid composition of the oils obtained showed a predominance of oleic (~47.5%) and linoleic acids (~39.5%). The total phytosterol content in the samples was hardly affected by the heat pre-treatment of the seeds, while the fatty acid profile, tocopherol content and oxidative stability were not altered.</p> 2022-03-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)