Grasas y Aceites 2023-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Grasas y Aceites, Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites </strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de la Grasa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de la Grasa</a>, peer-reviewed and devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the broad field of lipids, especially edible fats and oils from different origins, including non acyl lipids from microbial origin relevant to the food industry. It publishes full research articles, research notes, reviews as well as information on references, patents, and books.</p> <p>The journal publishes original articles on basic or practical research, as well as review articles on lipid related topics in food science and technology, biology, (bio)chemistry, medical science, nutrition, (bio)technology, processing and engineering. Topics at the interface of basic research and applications are encouraged. Manuscripts related to by-products from the oil industry and the handling and treatment of the wastewaters are also welcomed.</p> <p>Topics of special interest:</p> <p>-Lipid analysis, including sensory analysis<br />-Oleochemistry, including lipase modified lipids<br />-Biochemistry and molecular biology of lipids, including genetically modified oil crops and micro-organisms<br />-Lipids in health and disease, including functional foods and clinical studies<br />-Technical aspects of oil extraction and refining<br />-Processing and storage of oleaginous fruit, especially olive pickling<br />-Agricultural practices in oil crops, when affecting oil yield or quality</p> <p>Founded in 1950 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (2 years): <strong>1.400</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (5 years): <strong>1.700</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>53</strong>/72 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>119</strong>/142 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2022: <strong>0.29</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>55</strong>/76 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>132</strong>/169 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.00044</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.201</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Reviewers List 2022 2023-06-26T10:12:44+02:00 Equipo Editorial 2023-06-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Enzyme extraction of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum S.) fat sedes 2023-05-24T13:18:03+02:00 D.C.S. da Silva A.M.C. Rodrigues L.H.M. da Silva <p>Enzyme-assisted extraction is considered an environmentally friendly technique. Cellulase, pectinase and protease were tested for cupuassu seeds fat extraction. The best fat efficiency (81.66%) was obtained for the solute:solvent 1:5 (m:w), orbital shaker at 120 rpm, 60 °C, for 8 hours and enzyme concentrations (cellulase, pectinase and protease) of 1.0%. The fat was characterized for physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities and oxidative stability. The fat showed good thermal stability (14.26 h) and high contents of monounsaturated (42.42%) and saturated (43.47%) fatty acids with higher concentrations of oleic and stearic acids, respectively, and a high content of phenolic compounds (141.84 µg EAG·g<sup>-1</sup>) in the fat, and in the aqueous extract (926.47 µg EAG·g<sup>-1</sup>). The results indicated that the cupuassu seed fat obtained by enzymatic extraction showed superior properties to cupuassu fat obtained by cold pressing, in addition to generating an aqueous fraction which is rich in bioactive compounds that can be used as ingredients in the food and pharmaceutical sectors.</p> 2023-05-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) GC/MS quantification of individual fatty acids of selected green leafy vegetable foliage and their biodiesel attributes 2023-05-24T13:45:09+02:00 S.S. Kumar V. Manasa C.K. Madhubalaji A.W. Tumaney P. Giridhar <p>The current demand for edible vegetable oil is increasing worldwide, and the development of new sources of high-quality vegetable edible oil is an essential task. There is also a huge demand for biodiesel in domestic and industrial applications, and foliage oils could be a good source for diesel applications. The current study aimed at the identification and quantification of fatty acids from commonly consumed green leafy vegetables (GLVs) viz.,&nbsp;<em>Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Basella alba, Basella rubra,</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Rumex vesicarius</em>&nbsp;and to calculate the biodiesel attributes of the oil. The total oil content was ascertained as the highest in&nbsp;<em>R. vesicarius</em>&nbsp;foliage (3.91 ± 0.27 g/100 g dry leaf powder). GC/MS chromatographic investigation identified 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid as a significant compound followed by hexadecanoic acid. In&nbsp;<em>Hibiscus</em>&nbsp;spp. C18:3 (49.3 µmol % and 50.4 µmol %) was recorded to be the most noteworthy followed by C16:0 (23.2 µmol % and 21 µmol %) in&nbsp;<em>H. cannabinus</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>H. sabdariffa,</em>&nbsp;respectively. The GLVs foliage-fatty acid biodiesel attributes were additionally assessed through an empirical formula. Consequently, the overall examined results will be helpful for the investigation of these oils as vegetable oil for human consumption and biodiesel applications.</p> 2023-05-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Effect of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine on antioxidant capacity, oxidative stability and color reversion of camellia seed oil 2023-05-25T07:22:27+02:00 J.J. Zhong L. Ma Y.L. Sun H.Y. Zhong B. Zhou <p>Non-hydratable phospholipids as pro-oxidants are likely to cause a decrease in the quality of vegetable oils. The influence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) on the oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and color reversion of refined camellia seed oil (RCSO) was evaluated in this work. The PE/PS addition could improve the oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity, but was not a key factor in the color reversion of RCSO. The results clearly showed that PE and PS were not prooxidants but antioxidants in camellia seed oil, and the findings of the present study would be useful for extending the shelf-life of camellia seed oil and for retaining phospholipids during moderate refining.</p> 2023-05-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 3-MCPD and glycidol levels in edible oils and fats obtained from local markets in Türkiye 2023-05-25T08:26:14+02:00 A.O. Gündüz M.M. Ceylan A. Baştürk <p>In this study, it was aimed to determine the 3-MCPD and glycidol levels in 9 types (46 brands) of edible fat and oil offered for sale in markets located in Türkiye. 3-MCPD and glycidol levels were determined by making some modifications to the DGF C VI 18 (10) method. The highest levels of 3-MCPD and glycidol levels were detected in hazelnut oils, riviera olive oils, margarines, and shortenings. As expected, these contaminants were not observed in extra-virgin olive oils, while they were detected at low levels in fish oils. The highest 3-MCPD levels were found in the range of 0.06-2.12 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;in hazelnut oil, 0.16-1.69 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;in riviera olive oils, and 0.17-1.17 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;in margarines. The highest glycidol levels were found in the shortenings in the range of 1.98-6.46 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>, followed by hazelnut oil (0.54-2.63 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) and riviera olive oil (0.19-3.53 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>).</p> 2023-05-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) A survey of phthalates in flavored olive oils from Turkey 2023-05-25T09:13:14+02:00 İ. Toptancı S. Kıralan O. Ketenoğlu <p>Phthalates are organic contaminants that are used as plasticizers in many plastic food packaging materials. Because of their lipophilic character, oils are the primary source of human exposure to phthalates. In this study, the presence of five phthalate esters; diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) in olive oils flavored with different materials and marketed in Turkey in 2020 was determined. The samples included BBP, DINP, DIDP at lower concentrations than their LOQ. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in all samples at varying concentrations between &lt; LOQ to 1.81 mg/kg. The highest amount of DEHP was found in the oil sample flavored with bergamot (1.81 mg/kg). DBP was detected in 9 of the 25 samples at concentrations from 0.11 to 0.27 mg/kg.</p> 2023-05-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Modulation of essential fatty acid levels in coconut oil with flaxseed oil 2023-06-13T13:33:40+02:00 A.A. Joshi M.V. Hegde A.A. Zanwar <p>Coconut oil (CO) is a popular cooking medium but its lack of essential fatty acids (FA) is a health concern. Therefore, the aim of this work was to improve the FA profile of CO by blending with flaxseed oil (FO). Blends with various percentages of FO were prepared and studied for physicochemical characterization, thermal and long-term storage stability. The results indicated that the blends made favorable alterations in FA composition without adverse effects to the oxidative stability of the fatty acids and they resisted secondary thermal deterioration up to two hours at 180 ºC. The blend with the highest percentage of FO was stable for nine months. THP-1 cell line studies showed that ω-3 FA from the blend was incorporated into the cells with no adverse effect on cell viability but the inflammatory markers studied remained unaltered. Thus, CO and FO blends could be stored for at least nine months and could be used as cooking medium when prolonged heating is not involved.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Elucidation of key odorants and sensory propertiesof five different extra virgin olive oils from Turkey by GC-MS-Olfactometry 2023-06-13T12:53:51+02:00 D. Sevim O. Köseoğlu P. Kadiroğlu G. Guclu M. Ulaş S. Selli <p>The present study investigates the aroma, key odorants and sensory profile of extra virgin olive oils from five well-known Turkish cultivars. The aromatic extract obtained by the purge and trap extraction system, according to a sensory analysis, resembled the odor of olive oil. A total of 22, 21, 18, 22 and 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in the extracts of Ayvalık, Memecik, Gemlik, Sarı Ulak and Beylik olive oils, respectively. The results show that Ayvalık has the highest flavor dilution (FD) value of 1024 with hexanal,&nbsp;<em>(E)-</em>2-hexenal and&nbsp;<em>α</em>-farnesene. Memecik has the highest FD value at 2048 with (E)-2-hexenal. Gemlik has the highest FD value of 1024 with&nbsp;<em>(Z)-</em>3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol and&nbsp;<em>α</em>-farnesene. Sarı Ulak has the highest FD value at 2048 with&nbsp;<em>(E)-</em>2-hexenal. Beylik has the highest FD value of 2048 with&nbsp;<em>(E)-</em>2-hexenal and hexanal. All cultivars represent the characteristic green, cut-grass, fruity odor notes.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Effects of oleuropein-rich olive leaf extract on the oxidative stability of refined sunflower oil 2023-05-26T08:30:09+02:00 Y. M’Rabet K. Hosni K. Khwaldia <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of oleuropein-rich olive leaf extract (OLE) to improve the quality and oxidative stability of sunflower oil subjected to accelerated thermal oxidation. Oleuropein was the major phenolic compound determined by HPLC-DAD with a content ranging from 20.81 to 32.56 mg·g<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;of dry extract (DE). The evaluation of the&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;antioxidant capacity of OLE showed good scavenging capacity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) (1.01 and 0.96 mmol Trolox equivalents (ET·g<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;DE, respectively). The enrichment of sunflower oil with 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% OLE (w/v) significantly inhibited thermal-induced peroxidation in a dose-dependent fashion. 0.25% OLE was the most effective concentration and showed a significant reduction in peroxide value and conjugated dienes by 61.4 and 17.4%. These results indicate that OLE can be considered a good natural alternative for extending the shelf-life of polyunsaturated vegetable oils.</p> 2023-05-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fatty acids and mineral composition of seed oils extracted from different Rosa L. taxa 2023-05-24T14:30:15+02:00 I.H. Hatipoglu B.E. Ak <p>In the study, the macro and micro elements and fatty acid contents in rose seeds, which are generally evaluated in the waste category, were determined. Among the plants belonging to these taxa, only the registered varieties belonging to four taxa were used, while the others were genotypes. The plant materials of the study include rosehip (<em>R. canina</em>&nbsp;L.), Yildiz variety of rosehip (<em>R. canina</em>&nbsp;L. cv ‘Yildiz’), Syrup rose (<em>R. heckeliana</em>&nbsp;Tratt. subsp.&nbsp;<em>vanheurckiana</em>), Austrian briar (<em>R. foetida</em>&nbsp;Herrm.), lax rootstock [<em>R. caesia</em>&nbsp;Sm. (Syn:&nbsp;<em>R. laxa</em>&nbsp;Retz.)], wild rose [<em>R. montana</em>&nbsp;subsp.&nbsp;<em>woronovii</em>&nbsp;Chaix subsp.&nbsp;<em>woronovii</em>&nbsp;(Lonacz) Ö. Nilsson L.], hybrid landscape roses (<em>R.</em>&nbsp;x&nbsp;<em>hybrida</em>) and Hosap rose [<em>R. pisiformis</em>&nbsp;(Christ) D.] taxa. It was determined that the contents of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium of the macro elements examined in the seed samples differed statistically from each other. The seeds of different&nbsp;<em>Rosa</em>&nbsp;L. species examined within the scope of the research can be considered as one of the fruit oil sources with its 3.71-10.01% oil content. The fatty acid contents were determined as follows: linoleic acid (ω6) contents in the taxa ranged from 41.63 to 50.11% with an average of 44.88%; oleic acid (ω9) ranged from 20.80 to 30.27% with an average of 24.95%; linolenic acid (ω3) varied between 14.00-28.51% with an average of 19.20%; arachidic acid ranged from 0.75-1.63% and the average was 1.97%; eicosenoic acid ranged between 0.13-0.65% and averaged 0.33%; palmitoleic acid contents ranged from 0.08-0.60; behenic acid varied between 0.08-0.19% with 0.11% average. It was observed that the (ω3/ω6 ratio of the hybrid rose, which is especially used as a landscape rose and whose fruits are not evaluated, had an average value.&nbsp;<em>R. canina</em>&nbsp;‘Yildiz’ cultivar showed a high (ω3/ω6 ratio, which is important in health terms. The high oleic acid contents found in these taxa are important results.</p> 2023-05-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Effect of antioxidant-enriched microcrystalline cellulose from almond residue on physicochemical and textural characteristics of mayonnaise 2023-05-26T09:45:19+02:00 N. Ünver Ş. Çelik <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate whether antioxidant-enriched microcrystalline cellulose from almond residue&nbsp;<strong>(</strong>AE-MCC-AS) affects the physicochemical and textural characteristics of mayonnaise during 56 days of storage at 25 °C. The&nbsp;<em>L</em><sup>&nbsp;<em>*</em></sup>&nbsp;value of the mayonnaise decreased by increasing the AE-MCC-AS ratio; whereas the redness and yellowness values increased. The emulsion stability and viscosity increased by increasing the AE-MCC-AS ratio from 0.2% to 0.4%; however, they decreased with an increase in the AE-MCC-AS ratio from 0.4% to 0.6%. The largest oil droplets were observed in the micrographs of the control, 0.2% AE-MCC-AS-M and 0.6% AE-MCC-AS-M; while the smallest ones were observed in the micrographs of α-tocopherol-M, BHT-M and 0.4% AE-MCC-AS-M. During the storage period, the total MUFA and PUFA showed a declining trend in all treatments with a higher decrease in the control; while total SFA showed an upward trend with a higher increase in the control. In terms of textural characteristics, a significant declining trend (P &lt; 0.01) was observed in firmness and consistency; whereas an upward trend was observed in cohesiveness during the storage in all treatments.</p> 2023-05-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Factors affecting nutritional quality in terms of the fatty acid composition of Cyprinion macrostomus 2023-05-25T09:37:13+02:00 N. Şen Özdemir M. Koyun F. Caf M. Kırıcı <p>This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different factors (season, gender, location, total lipid, weight and length) on the fatty acid composition and nutritional quality of&nbsp;<em>Cyprinion macrostomus.</em>&nbsp;The results were evaluated through PERMANOVA, principal coordinates (PCO), and cluster analysis for similarity ranges. An analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) was performed on the distance matrix using multiple permutations within a significant fixed effect (p &lt; 0.05). C18:1ω9, EPA and DHA were the most important fatty acids which had an effect on the nutritional quality in all the factor groups. Total lipid amount, season and length factors were the most influential on the fatty acid compositions of&nbsp;<em>C. macrostomus</em>. Summer and Spring were the best the periods for the good nutritional quality of&nbsp;<em>C. macrostomus</em>&nbsp;in terms of AI (Atherogenicity index), TI (Thrombogenicity index) and h/H (Σhypocholesterolemic/Σhypercholesterolemic fatty acid index). In addition, station, gender and weight had no effect on nutritional quality. The study indicated that&nbsp;<em>C. macrostomus</em>&nbsp;is a potential fish meat for human nutrition with high nutritional value in terms of fatty acid composition.</p> 2023-05-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the oil extracted from Phoenix seeds 2023-05-26T10:12:43+02:00 S. Dong S. Sun <p>In this work, phoenix (<em>Firmiana simplex</em>&nbsp;L.) seed oil from Sterculiaceae was extracted using ultrasound-assisted and Soxhlet methods, and physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition were compared and analyzed. The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the extraction process of Phoenix seed oil were also evaluated. The results showed that the common physicochemical properties of the oil samples extracted by the ultrasound-assisted method were lower than those of the Soxhlet extraction method. In the range of 293 K to 323 K, the effective diffusion coefficient of Phoenix seed oil was significantly different, and varied from 5.18×10<sup>-13</sup>m<sup>2</sup>·s<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;to 1.29×10<sup>-12</sup>m<sup>2</sup>·s<sup>-1</sup>. The entropy and enthalpy changes in the extraction were positive with values of 33.17 J/(mol·K) and 7.15 kJ/mol, respectively. This work provides the theoretical basis for the development of extraction process parameters and the design of an extraction process for Phoenix seed oil.</p> 2023-05-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)