Grasas y Aceites <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites </strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de la Grasa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de la Grasa</a>, peer-reviewed and devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the broad field of lipids, especially edible fats and oils from different origins, including non acyl lipids from microbial origin relevant to the food industry. It publishes full research articles, research notes, reviews as well as information on references, patents, and books.</p> <p>The journal publishes original articles on basic or practical research, as well as review articles on lipid related topics in food science and technology, biology, (bio)chemistry, medical science, nutrition, (bio)technology, processing and engineering. Topics at the interface of basic research and applications are encouraged. Manuscripts related to by-products from the oil industry and the handling and treatment of the wastewaters are also welcomed.</p> <p>Topics of special interest:</p> <p>-Lipid analysis, including sensory analysis<br />-Oleochemistry, including lipase modified lipids<br />-Biochemistry and molecular biology of lipids, including genetically modified oil crops and micro-organisms<br />-Lipids in health and disease, including functional foods and clinical studies<br />-Technical aspects of oil extraction and refining<br />-Processing and storage of oleaginous fruit, especially olive pickling<br />-Agricultural practices in oil crops, when affecting oil yield or quality</p> <p>Founded in 1950 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (2 years): <strong>1.416</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (5 years): <strong>1.738</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>55</strong>/72 (Q4, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>121</strong>/143 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2021: <strong>0.32</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>55</strong>/74 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>126</strong>/164 (Q3, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.00048</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.203</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Grasas y Aceites 0017-3495 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Controlled fermentation of heat-shocked, unsalted and inoculated Moroccan Picholine green olives <p>The present work reports the controlled fermentation of heat-shocked, unsalted and inoculated green olives. The effects of heat-shock (60, 70 and 80 °C three times for 5 min), inoculation with the oleuropeinolytic strain of&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;FSO175 (<em>L.p-</em>FSO175) and the addition of Cell-Free Supernatant of&nbsp;<em>C. pelliculosa</em>&nbsp;L18 (CFS of&nbsp;<em>C.p</em>-L18) on the fermentation process of unsalted green olives were examined. The results showed a drastic reduction in the initial indigenous&nbsp;<em>Enterobacteria</em>, and an improvement in the acidification of heat-shocked olives at 70 and 80 °C, when compared to 60 °C. The inoculation with&nbsp;<em>L.p-</em>FSO175 and addition of CFS of&nbsp;<em>C.p</em>-L18 enhanced the fermentation and preservation of unsalted green olives, indicated by a significant decrease in pH, increase in free acidity and total disappearance of&nbsp;<em>Enterobacteria</em>. The heat-shock treatment at high temperature (80 °C), inoculation with&nbsp;<em>L.p-</em>FSO175 and addition of CFS of&nbsp;<em>C.p</em>-L18 led to the best reduction in bitterness, and favorable color changes (L, a, and b) in fermented olives. This sequential method led to more appreciated sensory characteristics (mainly bitterness and color) of fermented olives, lower spoilage incidence in olives, and reduced fermentation time to 50 days, and therefore may be suitable to control the fermentation of unsalted green olives of the Moroccan picholine variety.</p> N. Ghabbour Y. Rokni H. Abouloifa R. Bellaouchi I. Hasnaoui S. Gaamouche N. Houmy M. El Yamani R. Ben Salah N. Ktari E. Saalaoui A. Asehraou Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 74 1 e485 e485 10.3989/gya.0890211 Lipid profile, volatile compounds and oxidative stability during the storage of Moroccan Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil <p>The fatty acids, sterol, tocopherol and volatile compositions of Moroccan cold-pressed cactus (<em>Opuntia ficus-indica</em>) seed oil were studied. The most abundant fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol were linoleic acid (60.6%), γ-tocopherol (533 mg/kg) and β-sitosterol (6075 mg/kg), respectively. In this study, 23 volatile compounds were identified with perceivable odor attributes for 14 compounds. The oxidative quality of cactus seed oil was monitored over 4 weeks at 50 °C. Increases in PV, K232 and FFA were detected during the first two weeks as well as a decrease in the induction time; whereas no change was reported for the K270 values. The amount of total phenolic content increased until it reached 0.3 mg/kg and then decreased by the end of the storage period; while tocopherols started to decrease after the first week. The fat-free residue extracts showed a very strong effect to reduce the oxidation of linoleic acid. Consequently, the extracts were significantly more effective to bleach β-carotene in the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay in comparison with the control.</p> S. El harkaoui S. Gharby B. Kartah H. El Monfalouti M. E. El-sayed M. Abdin M.A. Salama Z. Charrouf B. Matthäus Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 74 1 e486 e486 10.3989/gya.1129212 The intensity of the cluster drop affects the bioactive compounds and fatty acid composition in hazelnuts <p>This study was conducted to determine how the intensity of the cluster drop effects nut traits, bioactive compounds, and fatty acid composition in Tombul, Palaz and Kalınkara hazelnut cultivars. The cluster drop significantly affected bioactive compounds and fatty acid composition while it did not affect the traits of the nuts. As cluster drop intensity increased, nut traits and bioactive compounds in all cultivars increased. Strong cluster drop intensity determined the highest total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. Except for the Kalınkara cultivar, a low amount of linoleic acid was detected while high amounts of oleic and stearic acid were determined in slight cluster drop intensity. As cluster drop intensity increased, palmitic acid increased. Principal component analysis showed that the slight and intermediate drop intensity were generally associated with kernel length, oleic, linoleic, stearic, palmitoleic, 11-eicosenoic and arachidic acids. In contrast, strong intensity was associated with nut and kernel weight, kernel ratio, kernel width, kernel thickness, kernel size, bioactive compounds, and palmitic acid. As a result, the bioactive compounds and fatty acid composition, which are important for human health, was significantly affected by cluster drop intensity.</p> O. Karakaya Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 74 1 e487 e487 10.3989/gya.1127212 Changes in the quality parameters of Cephalaria syriaca L. seed oil after the refining process <p>The present study has determined that the crude-oil refining process from the&nbsp;<em>Cephalaria syriaca</em>&nbsp;(CS) seed, which could be a new vegetable oilseed source, changed its physical and chemical quality properties (except specific gravity and refractive index). It was also determined that the dominant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the crude and refined oils were myristic (21.06-11.80%), palmitic (10.8-8.91%), stearic (2.26-2.70%), oleic (29.17-34.24%) and linoleic (35.56-40.57%). The vitamin E values of the crude and refined CS seed oils were 51.95-50.90 mg/kg, respectively. The oxidative stability values for crude and refined CS seed oils were 2.32-2.69 h, respectively. β-sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant sterols. As a result of the refining process, although magnesium, potassium, iron and copper decreased, the ratios of sodium, aluminum, calcium, chromium, strontium, rubidium, and barium increased. The results provide preliminary data for the future consumption of CS oil in particular for refined CS seed oil.</p> E. Duman Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 74 1 e488 e488 10.3989/gya.1123212 Fatty acid profile and rheological behavior of annatto seed oil (Bixa orellana), cupuassu seed fat (Theobroma grandiflorum), and their blends <p>Annatto seed oil (ASO) and cupuassu seed fat (CSF) were combined at the ratios: 30:70, 50:50, and 70:30 (% w/w). Their fatty acid profile, nutritional quality, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectra, and rheological behavior were evaluated. ASO increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blends; whereas CSF conferred higher contents of monounsaturated fatty acids. The blends exhibited low atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices, suggesting nutritional advantages. The Newtonian fluid behavior and FTIR results suggested that mixing ASO and CSF at different proportions did not affect the functional groups. ASO showed an activation energy value which indicated that this fat viscosity was more sensitive to temperature changes. The Newtonian model proved to be suitable to describe the behavior of samples, according to statistical fit parameters R<sup>2</sup>, χ<sup>2</sup>, and RSS. The resulting blends presented improved physicochemical properties and nutritional attributes, indicating their feasibility for the development of new products.</p> D.C.S. da Silva F.B. de Carvalho-Guimarães I.P. Valente N. Cunha S.C. da C. Sanches D.A. da Silva J.O.C. Silva Júnior L.H.M. da Silva A.M. da C. Rodrigues Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-22 2023-03-22 74 1 e489 e489 10.3989/gya.1122212 The influence of microwave roasting on bioactive components and chemical parameters of cold pressed fig seed oil <p>The effect of microwave roasting process on the compositional parameters and bioactive contents of fig seed oil were investigated. Fig seeds were ground and roasted in a microwave oven at 350, 460 and 600 Watt for 5 and 10 minutes and the roasted seeds were processed to obtain oil. The results showed that peroxide, K<sub>232</sub>&nbsp;and K<sub>270</sub>&nbsp;values were adversely affected by roasting. Fig seed oil was a prosperous source of γ-tocopherol and significant losses were observed due to microwave pre-treatment. The major fatty acids in fig seed oil were linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids; whereas the major triacylglycerols were LnLO, LnLnL, LnLnLn and LnLnO, according to fatty acid profile. The most abundant sterol in the fig seed oil samples was β-sitosterol with 3235.90 to 3625.62 mg/kg, followed by Δ5- and Δ7-avenasterols. The principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchial clustering served to differentiate between intense and mild microwave-treated oils as well as the unroasted samples.</p> D. Deniz Şirinyıldız A. Yıldırım Vardin A. Yorulmaz Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 74 1 e490 e490 10.3989/gya.1011212 Optimization of low thermal treatments to increase hydrophilic phenols in the Alperujo liquid fraction <p>Hydrophilic phenols are the main bioactive compounds in alperujo. Among them, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and Tyrosol (Ty), are the most relevant and deeply studied. These compounds exhibit high antioxidant capacity and a wide range of health benefits as well as technologically promising properties. Given that, their recovery represents an attractive opportunity to valorize this by-product. In this work low thermal treatments were applied to alperujo in order to obtain phenol-enriched liquid fractions. Optimization assays combining different levels of temperature (30 to 90 ºC), time (60 to 180 min) and water content (70 to 90%), followed by response surface methodologies were performed. The results indicated that by applying optimal conditions, is possible to obtain theoretical yields of Total phenols, DHPG, HT and Ty of 2.4, 957.8, 3.4 and 6.4 times greater, respectively, than raw dry alperujo. Interestingly, all the evaluated conditions can be reproduced with low investment in a standard olive oil industry.</p> M. Rodríguez V. Cornejo G. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez P. Monetta Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-22 2023-03-22 74 1 e491 e491 10.3989/gya.0227221 Extraction of bioactive lipids from Pleuroncodes monodon using organic solvents and supercritical CO2 <p>A huge volume of&nbsp;<em>Engraulis ringens</em>&nbsp;(Peruvian anchoveta) is caught together with the species&nbsp;<em>Pleuroncodes monodon</em>&nbsp;(munida), whose potential bioactive lipids are not commercially exploited. In the present study, lipid with carotenoid pigment (astaxanthin) and essential fatty acids (EPA+DHA) were obtained from munida lipids extracted with hexane:isopropyl alcohol (He-I), acetone (Ac), ethanol (Et) and supercritical CO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;+ ethanol (SC-CO<sub>2</sub>-Et). The functional quality of the fatty acids was determined by atherogenicity index (AI), thrombogenicity index (TI) and the hypocholesterolemia:hypercholesterolemia (H:H) ratio. The highest astaxanthin (ASTX) contents (4238.65 and 4086.71 µg/g lipid) corresponded to extractions using Ac and SC-CO<sub>2</sub>-Et. EPA+DHA ranged from 31.15 to 31.85% and the functional quality ranges were between 0.56-0.61 (AI), 0.19-0.21 (TI) and 1.73-1.81 (H:H). Consequently, SC-CO<sub>2</sub>-Et extraction would be advisable because of its low environmental impact. The IA and IT quality indexes suggest that the consumption of munida lipids would be healthy, although the H:H ratio shows the opposite.</p> M. Barriga-Sánchez G. Sanchez-Gonzales M.A. Varas Condori M.N. Sanjinez Alvites M.E. Ayala Galdos De Valenzuela Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-22 2023-03-22 74 1 e492 e492 10.3989/gya.0104221 Oxidative stability and compositional characteristics of oil from microwave irradiated black cumin seed under accelerated oxidation condition <p>The present work evaluated the impact of microwave pre-treatment on the storage stability, fatty acids and triacylglycerol contents in black cumin seed oil (BCO) during storage at 62 ºC. During storage, the oxidative indicator values (free acidity, peroxide value,&nbsp;<em>p</em>-anisidine value, TOTOX, specific extinctions and thiobarbituric acid) for the oils increased faster in untreated oil samples than in the microwaved samples. The degradation rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and triacylglycerol species (LLL and OLL) during storage were higher in untreated samples compared to treated ones, indicating that oxidation proceeded more slowly in the treated samples. During storage, the generation of hydroperoxides, their degradation and the formation of secondary oxidation products as investigated by FTIR, were lower in the treated oils. In conclusion, microwave pre-treatment prior to oil extraction reduced the oxidative degradation of oil samples, thereby increasing the storage stability of BCO.</p> J. Hossen M. Abbas Ali N. Hidayu Othman A. Md Noor Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-22 2023-03-22 74 1 e493 e493 10.3989/gya.0908212 The effects of processing aids and techniques on olive oil extractability and oil quality índices <p>This study was conducted to investigate the effects of processing aids and techniques such as talcum powder (2% w/w), calcium carbonate (2% w/w), warm water dipping (45 °C), combined treatment (warm water dipping+2% calcium carbonate) and control (without adding processing aid) on extractability and quality of ‘Tarom 7’ olive oil as randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the carotenoid content, K<sub>232</sub>, fatty acid profile or the Cox’s value in the oil obtained from untreated and treated fruits with processing aids. The highest chlorophyll content (0.84 mg/kg), total phenolic content (236.94 mg/kg), paste extractability (8.5%) and the lowest peroxide values (0.32 meqO<sub>2</sub>/kg), K<sub>270</sub>&nbsp;(0.38) were obtained from the oil extracted with 2% talc powder. According to the results, it can be suggested that the 2% talc powder treatment could have a positive effect on olive oil quality and paste extractability.</p> E. Khaleghi H. Norozi Moghadam S.M.H. Mortazavi Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 74 1 e494 e494 10.3989/gya.0217221 Preparation of human milk fat substitute and improvement of its oxidative stability <p>1,3-Dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification using palm stearin rich in tripalmitin (PPP) and ethyl oleate. Enzymatic interesterification parameters such as temperature, water content, enzyme load, and substrate molar ratio were optimized. High contents of C52 (primarily OPO and its isomeric compounds) production (46.7%) and&nbsp;<em>sn</em>-2 palmitic acid (PA) content of 75.3% were detected. In addition, OPO-human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was blended with coconut, soybean, algal and microbial oils at a weight ratio of 0.70:0.18:0.11:0.004:0.007 to simulate fatty acids in human milk fat (HMF) according to the mathematical model. The main and important fatty acids in the Final-HMFS were within the ranges of those present in HMF. The Final-HMFS could promote the absorption of fats and minerals and the development of retina tissues in infants. The mixture of L-ascorbyl palmitate (L-AP) and vitamin E (VE) resulted in a synergistic antioxidant effect both in OPO-HMFS and OPO-HMFS emulsions. This finding has great significance in improving the quality and extending shelf-life of HMFS.</p> H.A. Liu J.Y. Huang T.M. Olajide T. Liu Z.M. Liu X.Y. Liao X.C. Weng Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 74 1 e495 e495 10.3989/gya.0444211 Extraction of oil, carotenes and tocochromanols from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit with subcritical propane <p>This work aims to screen the extraction of oil and bioactive compounds including carotenes and tocochromanols from oil palm fruit with subcritical propane and without using a cosolvent. The overall extraction curves of palm oil with subcritical propane were studied and compared to those extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide. Carotenes and tocochromanols were evaluated not only in the extracted oil, but also in the oil of residual fiber in order to calculate the efficiency to recover these valuable compounds. The experimental results showed that oil yield of up to 70 % could be obtained within 120 minutes with subcritical propane at 50 bar and a flow rate of 35 kg·h<sup>−1</sup>·kg<sup>−1</sup>. It was also shown that compressed propane is an excellent solvent for the extraction of oil enriched in carotenes and tocochromanols. Subcritical propane extraction can be used as an alternative process for the simultaneous recovery of these valuable minor components from palm fruit.</p> H. Phan-Tai G. Brunner Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 74 1 e496 e496 10.3989/gya.0896211 Changes in the essential oil content and composition of pelargonium graveolens l’hér with different drying methods <p>In this study, the effect of various drying methods (fresh plant, shade-drying, sun-drying, and oven-drying at 30 and 60 °C) on the essential oil (EO) composition of rose-scented geranium were determined. Essential oil samples were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS systems. The highest EO contents were obtained in the fresh plant (1.98%), followed by shade-drying (1.34 %) and oven-drying at 30 °C (1.20 %). The main components were citronellol (23.99-39.87%), geraniol (4.15-17.09%), menthone (4.48-8.34%), linalool (1.96-7.42%), β-caryophyllene (2.63-4.32%), geranyl tiglate (0.99-4.52%), citronellyl butyrate (0.53-5.31%) and cis-rose oxide (0.71-3.15%). The drying methods showed a marked impact on the constituents of the EO samples. The results demonstrated that drying the aerial parts of fresh geranium, and shade-drying and oven-drying at 30 °C were the best optimal methods to obtain the highest oil yield, and citronellol, geraniol, and linalool contents in the oil.</p> S. Akçura R. Çakmakçi Z. Ürüşan Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 74 1 e497 e497 10.3989/gya.0226221