Grasas y Aceites <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites </strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de la Grasa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de la Grasa</a>, peer-reviewed and devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the broad field of lipids, especially edible fats and oils from different origins, including non acyl lipids from microbial origin relevant to the food industry. It publishes full research articles, research notes, reviews as well as information on references, patents, and books.</p> <p>The journal publishes original articles on basic or practical research, as well as review articles on lipid related topics in food science and technology, biology, (bio)chemistry, medical science, nutrition, (bio)technology, processing and engineering. Topics at the interface of basic research and applications are encouraged. Manuscripts related to by-products from the oil industry and the handling and treatment of the wastewaters are also welcomed.</p> <p>Topics of special interest:</p> <p>-Lipid analysis, including sensory analysis<br />-Oleochemistry, including lipase modified lipids<br />-Biochemistry and molecular biology of lipids, including genetically modified oil crops and micro-organisms<br />-Lipids in health and disease, including functional foods and clinical studies<br />-Technical aspects of oil extraction and refining<br />-Processing and storage of oleaginous fruit, especially olive pickling<br />-Agricultural practices in oil crops, when affecting oil yield or quality</p> <p>Founded in 1950 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (2 years): <strong>1.400</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (5 years): <strong>1.700</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>53</strong>/72 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>119</strong>/142 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2022: <strong>0.29</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>55</strong>/76 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>132</strong>/169 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.00044</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.201</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Grasas y Aceites 0017-3495 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Use of molecular methods for the identification of yeast species isolated from fermentations of table olives produced traditionally in Kahramanmaraş <p>In this study, yeast species involved in the naturally fermented green table olive produced in Southern Turkey were investigated. Table olive samples were prepared with regional olive cultivars and traditional methods were employed in the production. Yeasts were isolated from the brines of the samples at the late fermentation stage and identified at the species level by the DNA sequences of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA genes. The D1/D2 domains were amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared to reference sequences deposited in the NCBI database. According to the results, isolated yeasts belonged to the&nbsp;<em>Candida</em>,&nbsp;<em>Debaryomyces</em>, and&nbsp;<em>Rhodotorula</em>&nbsp;genera and salt tolerant species were dominant as the salt content of the brines exceeded 11%. Among the determined species,&nbsp;<em>Candida oleophila</em>&nbsp;was the most dominant one and it was thought that isolated strains of&nbsp;<em>Candida oleophila</em>&nbsp;may be taken into consideration to be used as starter culture in table olive production.</p> S. Ayman Y. Gezginc Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 74 4 e523 e523 10.3989/gya.1213222 Chemical characterization of sunflower oil oxidized by UV and ozone with different degrees of oxidation and study of their antimicrobial action <p>Oxidation by the action of ozone takes place at high rates and involves the reaction of ozone molecules with fatty acid double bonds followed by the formation of stable oxidation products with biological activity. In the present work, a comparative study on sunflower oil oxidized by ultraviolet (UV) light and ozone was carried out. This study involved the chemical characterization of sunflower oil oxidized by UV irradiation and ozonation, in addition to assessing the germicidal activity of oxidized oils obtained under various conditions. The results indicated that under the conditions studied, the increase in the dose of UV irradiation did not produce significant changes in the level of oxidation of the oil. Ozonation promoted the formation of oxygenated compounds at higher rates, increasing in concentration as the applied dosage of ozone increased. The germicidal activity of the oils behaved similarly, with considerably higher activity found in the ozonized oils.</p> L.A Fernández-García O.E. Ledea-Lozano I. Fernández-Torres U. Jauregui Haza R. Garcés E. Martínez-Force M. Venegas-Calerón J.J. Salas Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 74 4 e524 e524 10.3989/gya.1107222 Retarding sunflower oil oxidation during the deep-fat frying of potato chips using micro-encapsulated Convolvulus arvensis Linn leaf phenolic extract <p>In this research, the extraction of polyphenols from&nbsp;<em>Convolvulus arvensis</em>&nbsp;(CA) leaves was optimized using ethanol (80%) at plant/solvent ratios and extraction times which varied between 1/10 to 1/30 (w/v) and 20 to 120 min, respectively. The extract with the highest polyphenol content was obtained at a ratio of 1/30 and 90 min. At 120 ppm, the preceding extract in either lyophilized (LyCAE) or encapsulated (EnCAE) form was evaluated as an antioxidant during the frying process using sunflower oil in comparison to TBHQ. Frying oil quality indices including refractive index, smoke point, acid value, anisidine value, polar and polymer compounds were monitored throughout frying times. FTIR spectroscopy was used to investigate the changes in&nbsp;<em>trans</em>-fatty acids, hydroperoxides and aldehyde contents. The results showed that the phenolic extract, especially in EnCAE form, exhibited superior antioxidant activity over TBHQ, which consequently led to the utilization of this phenolic extract as an antioxidant in frying oils.</p> K.S.M. Hammad M.M. Elkharsa M.M.A. El-Nikeety S.A.S. Hallabo Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 74 4 e525 e525 10.3989/gya.1105222 The effect of harvest time on the volatile compounds and bioactive properties of the flowers, leaves, and stems of Echinacea Pallida and its utilization to improve the oxidative stability of vegetable oils <p>The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of harvest time on the bioactive properties of&nbsp;<em>Echinacea pallida</em>&nbsp;and to determine the antioxidant effect of its extract in vegetable oils.&nbsp;<em>E. pallida</em>&nbsp;was harvested in June, 2009, June, 2010 and August. 2010. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity analyses of the plant extracts obtained with three different solvents were carried out using spectrophotometric methods. It was determined that harvest time and solvent type had significant effects on bioactive properties. In addition, the effect of&nbsp;<em>E. pallida</em>&nbsp;extract on the oxidative stability of vegetable oils was determined by the rancimat method. The extract (2000 ppm) obtained by ethanol (100%) showed similar oxidative stability on sunflower and canola oils compared to BHA (100 ppm). The GC-MS results revealed various volatile compounds such as bornyl acetate, caryophyllene E, musk ambrette, germacrene D, α-muurolol, musk ambrette, imidazo (1,2-a) pyrimidine, 1-pyrrolidino-1-cyclohexene, 2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolizine, pyrazine, and benzenaminium.</p> A. Kocacik H. Yalcin Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 74 4 e526 e526 10.3989/gya.0105221 Impact of different treatments on the antioxidant properties of two market types of peanuts grown in Mexico <p>The effect of roasting, frying, microwave heating, and germination on the antioxidant properties, total phenolics and flavonoids content of two types of peanuts (Valencia and Virginia) grown in Mexico was investigated. The thermal treatments affected the phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the two varieties of peanuts differently (by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and iron chelating activity methods). Germination was the best method to increase the antioxidant activity (up to 157% increase in the Virginia variety) and the contents of compounds with nutraceutical potential in the peanuts (up to 59% increase in total phenolics in the Valencia variety and 700% increase in total flavonoids in the Virginia variety). Germinated peanuts could be used as raw material for the production of functional foods.</p> M.C. Robles-Ramírez R. Viramontes-Bocanegra R. Mora-Escobedo E. Ortega-Robles M.C. Beltrán-Orozco Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 74 4 e527 e527 10.3989/gya.0878221 Optimization of the recovery yield of the enzymatic aqueous extraction of oil from wet açaí decocts using Design of Experiment <p>These last decades, açaí oil has been extensively studied for its biological properties and has gained interest from the health industry. It has thus become necessary to develop eco-friendly extraction techniques. The main objective of this study was the use of experimental designs for the maximization of the recovery yield of the enzymatic aqueous extraction process of açaí oil from wet decocts. A Simplex-Lattice Mixture Design was employed for the optimization of the proportion of three commercial enzymatic preparations. Subsequently, a Central Composite Design was used to identify the optimal values for total enzymatic concentration (0.5-4.5%) and extraction time (2-12h). The “Response Surface Methodology” (RSM) revealed that the maximum yield (60.55 ± 5.98%) was obtained using a 0.49:0.25:0.28 ternary mixture of Celluclast 1.5 L, Viscozyme L and Ultrazym AFP-L at a total enzymatic concentration of 2.85% for 10.9 hours. This study concluded that the enzymatic aqueous extraction of açaí oil is an efficient and sustainable process.</p> B. Rodrigues C. Herman Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-19 2023-12-19 74 4 e528 e528 10.3989/gya.0981221 Application of an edible coating developed with Andean potato starch and carboxymethyl-cellulose for lipid reduction during frying <p>This work aimed to search for alternative uses for different varieties of Andean potatoes (<em>Solanum tuberosum ssp andigenum</em>) which have been reintroduced in north-western Argentina. Specifically, the development of simple and compound films made with hydrocolloids such as carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) and starch (S) extracted from Andean potatoes var. Runa, and its application as a cover in the deep frying of Andean potato chips var. Waycha was studied to minimize oil absorption. The effect of prior bleaching of the chips with different media was also evaluated: water, calcium chloride solution, and ascorbic acid. The coatings were applied to potatoes chips before being fried. The results showed that the type of oil used did not affect absorption by the chips. The bleaching treatments with calcium chloride and coating with S/CMC, showed a significant reduction in oil absorption (39.5 % ± 0.7), delayed its oxidation, and decreased the loss of tocopherols during the frying process. It also contributed to the physical and sensory characteristics of the final product, which presented high acceptability by consumers.</p> S.R. Calliope A.M. Slavutsky N. Segura N.C. Samman Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 74 4 e529 e529 10.3989/gya.0103231 Effects of cold and hot smoking processes and the addition of natural Dunaliella salina polyphenol extract on the biochemical quality and shelf life of Sander lucioperca fillets after storage for 90 days <p>The effects of cold and hot smoking and the addition of&nbsp;<em>Dunaliella salina</em>&nbsp;polyphenol extract on the biochemical quality and shelf-life of&nbsp;<em>Sander lucioperca</em>&nbsp;fillets after storage for 90 days at 0-4 °C were examined. The results showed a significant increase in protein, lipid, free fatty acid, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl contents, and a decrease in peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and volatile base nitrogen levels in cold (CSF) and hot (HSF) smoked fillets covered with or without extract and stored for 1, 20, and 90 days compared to fresh fillets (FF). Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids exhibited a significant increase in FF and CSF and HSF covered with or without extract. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids revealed a significant decrease in FF and CSF and HSF with or without extract. Therefore, cold and hot smoking and polyphenol extract improved the biochemical quality and storage shelf-life of fillets for 90 days at 0-4 °C.</p> N. Bouriga S. Mili D. Troudi A. Ben Atitallah W.R. Bahri S. Bejaoui M.A. Dridi J.-P. Quignard M. Trabelsi M. Ben-Attia A.A.B. Shahin Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-19 2023-12-19 74 4 e530 e530 10.3989/gya.0215231 Variation in seed morphology and selected oil parameters of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) from different agroclimatic zones in Tamil Nadu, India <p>Tamil Nadu, in southern India, has the second-largest number of neem trees in the country. The oil from the seeds has high economic significance for cottage industries in the region. This paper examines 28 Candidate Plus Trees (CPTs) selected from six agroclimatic zones in Tamil Nadu which exhibit exceptional traits such as superior growth and other desirable characteristics. We aimed to understand seed morphology variations and physicochemical properties in the oil across different regions. Significant differences were observed for morphometric traits. Fruit production correlated negatively with rainfall. 100-seed kernel weight and seed length correlated with oil percentage. Rainfall influenced seed breadth and pericarp weight. Clustering using morphological characters did not group genotypes from the same region; while soil type could distinguish them. Correlation helped us determine the prominent features which influence the traits of interest, which can be useful for breeding programs, cultivation practices, and the development of neem-based products in Tamil Nadu and beyond.</p> A. Mayavel S. Krishnan R. Abinaya S. Esakkiammal R.R. Warrier Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 74 4 e531 e531 10.3989/gya.0221221 Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of curcumin in edible oils with different degrees of unsaturation <p>The antioxidant activity of curcumin (0.02-0.1%) was evaluated in olive, sesame, and safflower oils at 373, 383, and 393 K. The results were examined in contrast to the effects of tocopherol (0.1%) and BHT (0.02%), so that the inhibitory function of curcumin was evaluated comparatively. The activation energy of oxidation was determined for olive (82.94 kJ·mol<sup>-1</sup>), sesame (77.39 kJ·mol<sup>-1</sup>) and safflower oils (74.42 kJ·mol<sup>-1</sup>). Adding curcumin (0.1%) enhanced the activation energy by 26.26, 26.64, and 38.81% in the case of olive, safflower, and sesame oils, respectively. Based on Gibbs free energy, curcumin functioned more effectively in olive oil at 373 K (growth coefficient: 1.52%), compared to the action of the other two antioxidants, namely tocopherol (1.43%) and BHT (1.39%). The efficiency of curcumin was lower in oils which had a higher degree of polyunsaturation due to the disproportionation of the hydrogen-donating mechanism and the rate of free-radical formation in these oils.</p> P. Ramezani A. Rafati M.R. Toorani M.T. Golmakani Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 74 4 e532 e532 10.3989/gya.0675221 Influence of the impurity content on the density and viscosity of olive oily fluids <p>In this work, as a case study, the measurement of the density (<em>ρ</em>) and the dynamic viscosity (<em>µ</em>) of 12 different fluids (taken from a conventional oil mill) has been carried out. The variability of the samples processed shows that their impurity contents&nbsp;<em>c</em>&nbsp;(between 0.5-5.87%), together with the temperature&nbsp;<em>t</em>&nbsp;(which varied between 20-30 ºC), can affect the values of&nbsp;<em>ρ</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>µ</em>. However, this variation has been shown to be different depending on the case, being of the order of 1% for density or even more than 50% for dynamic viscosity. The fact that&nbsp;<em>µ</em>&nbsp;can be sensitive to the presence of impurities opens up a line of study that could be used to estimate such impuritiy content, in real time, by means of relatively simple methods.</p> P. Vallesquino-Laguna A. Tirado-Esquinas Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 74 4 e533 e533 10.3989/gya.0534231 Comprehensive characterization of physicochemical, thermal, compositional, and sensory properties of cold-pressed rosehip seed oil <p>In this study, cold-pressed rosehip seed oil was fully characterized. Acidity and oxidation levels were near the limit values or slightly exceeded them and improvement in the storage conditions was suggested. The oil started to crystallize at -45.25 °C, and melt at -25.56 °C. Linoleic acid (51.1%), β-sitosterol (84.6%), γ-tocopherol (773.76 µg/g) and rosmarinic acid (31.38 µg/g) were determined as major fatty acid, sterol, tocopherol and phenolic compound, respectively. For the first time, aromatic volatile compounds and sensory descriptive terms were determined for cold-pressed rosehip seed oil. Sixty-seven volatile compounds were detected and L-limonene was found to be a major volatile compound. According to the sensory analysis, timber/kindling and raw vegetable tastes/aromas were found to be relatively dominant. Consequently, it is thought that rosehip seeds can be used as a raw material for edible and nutritionally-rich cold-pressed oil production and/or as source oil for functional food preparations.</p> T. Eren S. Ok E. Yılmaz Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 74 4 e534 e534 10.3989/gya.0533231 Impact of different harvest times on fatty acid profile, sterol, tocopherol and bioactive properties of hazelnut oil <p>This study was carried out to determine the effects of different harvest times of hazelnuts on their lipid profiles and bioactive compound accumulations. Tombul hazelnut cultivar was harvested at four different harvest stages, namely in PH (pre-harvest time), EH (early harvest time), NH (normal harvest time) and LH (late harvest time). According to the results of the study, oil accumulation continued up to NH but did not further increase into LH (from 49.58 to 58.54 mg/100 g). Oxidative stability indices changed positively due to decreased poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from 9.87 to 7.70% in LH. The highest total sterol amount was reached in LH (122.32 mg/100 g). Although the change in the tocopherol content in the oil was irregular with the progression of the harvest time, its amount in the nuts increased continuously. Total carotenoid, phenolic, flavonoid, and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) peaked in EH and decreased to a minimum in LH.</p> H. Karaosmanoğlu Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 74 4 e535 e535 10.3989/gya.1212222