Grasas y Aceites <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites </strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de la Grasa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de la Grasa</a>, peer-reviewed and devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the broad field of lipids, especially edible fats and oils from different origins, including non acyl lipids from microbial origin relevant to the food industry. It publishes full research articles, research notes, reviews as well as information on references, patents, and books.</p> <p>The journal publishes original articles on basic or practical research, as well as review articles on lipid related topics in food science and technology, biology, (bio)chemistry, medical science, nutrition, (bio)technology, processing and engineering. Topics at the interface of basic research and applications are encouraged. Manuscripts related to by-products from the oil industry and the handling and treatment of the wastewaters are also welcomed.</p> <p>Topics of special interest:</p> <p>-Lipid analysis, including sensory analysis<br />-Oleochemistry, including lipase modified lipids<br />-Biochemistry and molecular biology of lipids, including genetically modified oil crops and micro-organisms<br />-Lipids in health and disease, including functional foods and clinical studies<br />-Technical aspects of oil extraction and refining<br />-Processing and storage of oleaginous fruit, especially olive pickling<br />-Agricultural practices in oil crops, when affecting oil yield or quality</p> <p>Founded in 1950 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (2 years): <strong>1.416</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (5 years): <strong>1.738</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>55</strong>/72 (Q4, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>121</strong>/143 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2021: <strong>0.32</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>55</strong>/74 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>126</strong>/164 (Q3, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.00048</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.203</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Grasas y Aceites 0017-3495 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Study of the operational conditions for ethyl esters production using residual frying oil and KF/clay catalyst in a continuous system <p>The transesterification of residual frying oil (RFO) with pressurized ethanol was carried out in a continuous reactor containing KF/clay as a heterogeneous catalyst. In the experiments, different oil:ethanol mass ratios were evaluated at 275 and 300 ºC and 20 MPa. In the sequence, the operational stability of the catalyst was evaluated for 8 hours, as well as the conduct of the reaction in two steps (testing new and recycled catalyst). An esters yield of ~90% was achieve at 275 ºC, for15 min and at 1:1.5 oil:ethanol mass ratio. Under these conditions, the catalyst provided a stable yield in the first 3 hours of operation, and a total decrease of 29% after 8 hours. This result can be attributed mainly to the leaching of the K<sup>+</sup>&nbsp;cations for the reactions in which the catalyst was exposed to long operating times. The two-step reaction served to increase the RFO conversion to esters, with low thermal decomposition.</p> D.A. Zempulski N. Postaue N. Stevanato H.J. Alves C. Silva Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 73 2 e453 e453 10.3989/gya.0322211 Chemical-functional composition of Terminalia catappa oils from different varieties <p>This study aimed to extract and physical-chemically characterize&nbsp;<em>Terminalia catappa</em>&nbsp;L. kernel oil from purple (CR) and yellow (CA) varieties. Physical-chemical parameters, composition of fatty acids, nutritional quality indices, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of both oil varieties were evaluated according to the literature. Both oils presented low levels of acidity and peroxides, besides the predominance of unsaturated fatty acids, ~63% of oleic and ~26% of linoleic acids, which influenced its nutritional indices. The CR oil variety exhibited a higher content in anthocyanin (18.3 ± 1.5 mg·100 g<sup>-1</sup>), ascorbic acid (68.4 ± 2.02 mg·100 g<sup>-1</sup>) and total polyphenol contents (152.3 ± 2.4 mg GAE<strong>·</strong>g<sup>-1</sup>), and a good antioxidant activity (38.6 ± 2.2 μg TE·g<sup>-1</sup>) determined by TEAC assay, when compared to the CA oil (p &lt; 0.05). Therefore, the results confirm the importance of&nbsp;<em>T. catappa</em>&nbsp;as a lipid source for human consumption to be used in the development of food products.</p> O.V. Santos S.D. Soares P.C.S. Dias S.P.A. Duarte M.P.L. Santos F.C.A. Nascimento B.E. Teixeira-Costa Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 73 2 e454 e454 10.3989/gya.0102211 Color of extra virgin olive oils enriched with carotenoids from microalgae: influence of ultraviolet exposure and heating <p>A carotenoid-rich extract containing 2.5 mg/mL of lutein and 3.3 mg/mL of β-carotene from the microalga&nbsp;<em>Scenedesmus almeriensis</em>&nbsp;was added to ten extra virgin olive oils from four Spanish cultivars with differing degrees of ripeness, obtaining carotenoid enriched oils with lutein and β-carotene concentrations of 0.082 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. Extra virgin olive oils enriched with carotenoids from microalgae were studied by analyzing the effect on color of three different treatments: ultraviolet exposure, microwave heating and immersion bath heating. The methodology was designed to simulate, in controlled laboratory conditions, the effects of household treatments. Spectrophotometric color measurements were then performed to monitor color changes in the enriched and non-enriched extra virgin olive oil samples. Enriched oils are much more chromatic, darker and redder than natural oils. After 55 days UV irradiation, 40 min microwave heating, and 72 hours thermostatic heating, the average color differences for natural/enriched extra virgin olive oils were 98/117, 15/9 and 57/28 CIELAB units, respectively. In general, increasing temperature and ultraviolet exposure produced higher CIELAB color differences in the non-enriched samples. The addition of microalga extracts to extra virgin olive oils was found to induce some color stability and may constitute a future way of increasing the daily intake of beneficial bioactive compounds such as carotenoids.</p> M.C. Murillo A.B. García T. Lafarga M. Melgosa R. Bermejo Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 73 2 e455 e455 10.3989/gya.0104211 The effect of replacing red palm stearin with red palm olein in baked potato cookies <p>Potato cookies were formulated by replacing red palm stearin (RPS) by red palm olein (RPOL) at 0, 17 and 35%, and then baked at 160, 180 and 200 °C for 10, 12 and 15 min. The sensory analysis, using an orthogonal test, showed that a RPS-RPOL ratio of 65:35, baking temperature of 160 ºC, and baking time 12 min were the optimal conditions. Cookies made from 65% RPS + 35% RPOL composition exhibited 0.6 times less squalene, but 1.5 times more β-carotene, tocopherols and tocotrienols than the mixture of RPS and RPOL at 100:0. In addition, cookies with superior oxidative stability were obtained at a lower temperature (160 ºC) and short baking time (10 min). This study demonstrates that the application of RPOL and RPS blending can positively enhance the nutritional properties and oxidative stability of baked food, and that using potato in the baking processing may be beneficial.</p> J. Xu Y.Y. Liu T.M. Olajide H.A. Liu X.C. Weng Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-22 2022-06-22 73 2 e456 e456 10.3989/gya.0441211 Optimization of date seed oil extraction using the assistance of hydrothermal and ultrasound technologies <p>The date seed is a by-product from the date industry. Its use as a source of added-value compounds is of great interest. Oil accounts for 5-13% of the seed’s weight. Soxhlet extraction with organic solvents is the traditional method for obtaining oil from seeds. In this work, hydrothermal pre-treatments and sonication are proposed to make the extraction a more environmentally friendly process. Factors such as sonication time and temperature and hexane-to-seed ratio (H/S) have been considered. Response surface methodology was applied for optimization. Hydrothermal treatments increased oil recovery. H/S was the most influential factor, and was close to 7 mL/g seeds for both samples. 71% recovery was achieved for native seeds after 15 min sonication at 45 ºC, and 80% for 180 ºC-treated seeds after 45 min at 35 ºC when compared to Soxhlet extraction. These conditions comply with our initial aim. Pre-treatments seem to have a negative effect on oil stability, although this observation needs to be confirmed.</p> A. Mrabet G. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez R. Guillén-Bejarano R. Rodríguez-Arcos M. Sindic A. Jiménez-Araujo Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-05-17 2022-05-17 73 2 e457 e457 10.3989/gya.0109211 Determination of nutritional health indexes of fresh bovine milk using near infrared spectroscopy <p>Bovine milk is one of the most complete foods that exist. During the last decades, milk FA have shown to improve human health due to the reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease and related pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflectance analysis to predict the nutritional value, fatty acid (FA) composition, and health index of fresh milk from dairy cows of pastoral systems. The prediction of Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, along with other FA ratios in fresh milk samples by NIRS were precise and accurate. In addition, the calibration model obtained by NIRS provides an opportunity for the routine quantification of milk’s healthy FA such as omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), with applications in the dairy industry for food labeling, and at the farm level for management of the dairy cow’s diet.</p> I. Lobos-Ortega N. Pizarro-Aránguiz N.L. Urrutia M. Silva-Lemus P. Pavez-Andrades I. Subiabre-Riveros D. Torres-Püschel Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 73 2 e458 e458 10.3989/gya.0450211 An advanced aqueous method of recovering pumpkin seed kernel oils and de-oiled meal: Optimization and comparison with other methods <p>The optimal process conditions of the advanced aqueous method for recovering oil and de-oiled meal from pumpkin seed kernels were: baking the kernels at 110 °C for 1 min, grinding them to pass through a sieve of 150 μm pore size, adding 1.60 ml brine to 10.00 g ground kernels, stirring for 30 min at 30 °C, centrifuging at 4000 r/min for 30 min and cold-pressing the residue from centrifugation. This method recovered &gt; 94% oil. Its oil recovery rate was comparable to that of solvent extraction and higher than that of enzyme-assisted aqueous method or hot-pressing. It recovered edible oil with higher quality and level of coenzyme Q10, tocopherols, carotenoids, total phytosterols and squalene as compared to solvent extraction or hot-pressing and requirements of China’s national standard. It is superior to enzyme-assisted aqueous method or hot-pressing for recovering de-oiled meal which is suitable for making texturized protein.</p> J. Fu W. Wu Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 73 2 e459 e459 10.3989/gya.0106211 Chemical characterization of baru oil and its by-product from the northwest region of Minas Gerais, Brazil <p>This study investigated baru oil and partially defatted baru flour from the northwest region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The physicochemical characterization of the oil was made by determining the fatty acid profile using gas chromatography, lutein, and α- and β- carotenes by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, and total carotenoids by spectrophotometry. The flour was analyzed for its chemical composition, fiber, and mineral contents. Baru oil presented excellent quality parameters and high contents in unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. The flour showed relevant levels of proteins, lipids, and dietary fiber, in addition to having representative mineral contents for food such as manganese, magnesium, and copper. Thus, baru oil and the by-product of its extraction offer a rich chemical composition, and their application may add nutritional value to foods in addition to reducing negative environmental impacts.</p> L.A. Borges R.N.B. Souto A.L.A. Nascimento J.F. Soares C.L. Paiva I.V. Brandi J.P. Lima Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 73 2 e460 e460 10.3989/gya.0447211 Application of MOFs and natural clays for removal of MCPD and GEs from edible oils <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and glycidyl esters (GEs) from edible oils by using Metal Organic Frameworks (MOF) and natural clays. First, the model oil was treated with adsorbents and titanium (IV) butoxide-terephthalate MOF (Ti-MOF) and kaolin were selected as the best performing MOF along with natural clay, respectively, for the removal of 3-MCPD and GEs. The effects of treatment conditions were also investigated, 6.0% adsorbent level, 120 min treatment time and 95 ºC temperature were determined to be the best treatment parameters. Finally, palm oil samples were treated with Ti-MOF and kaolin under the selected conditions and removal of 3-MCPD and GEs was obtained at up to 27% and 58%, respectively. In conclusion, MOFs and natural clays showed good potential for the removal of 3-MCPD and GEs, and the efficiency of the treatment can be improved by modifying the adsorbents.</p> T. Şahin S. Ok E. Yılmaz Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 73 2 e461 e461 10.3989/gya.0556211 Acidic and enzymatic pre-treatment effects on cold-pressed pumpkin, terebinth and flaxseed oils <p>Oil yield and the properties of oil can be improved with various enzymatic pre-treatments before obtaining oil from oilseeds by cold-press extraction. A commercial mixture of pectolytic enzymes was used in this study. In addition, apple seed meal as a source of β-glucosidase enzyme and citric acid were applied to oilseeds (pumpkin, terebinth and flaxseed) as pre-treatments. The results were evaluated by comparing the effects of the pre-treatments on oil yield and properties. Enzyme preparate could increase the oil yield of pumpkin seeds (~300%) and flaxseed (151%). Significant increases in the phenolic contents of terebinth (from 91.67 to 319.33 mg GAE/kg) and flaxseed oils (from 12.03 to 40.47 mg GAE/kg) were achieved by citric acid and enzymatic pre-treatments. These two pre-treatments were also effective in terms of peroxide formation and oxidative stability in terebinth oil. With the help of the pre-treatments applied to oilseeds it was possible to increase the transition of phenolics from seeds to oil for terebinth oil with increase ratios of 245% for citric acid, 248% for the enzymatic process compared to the control.</p> S.Y. Özkılıç D. Arslan Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 73 2 e462 e462 10.3989/gya.0324211 Recent advances in plant-based fat formulation as substitute for lard <p>Lard is one of the main animal fats used as shortening and frying medium. Religious prohibitions and negative health perceptions regarding animal fats have caused concerns about the consumption of lard among communities living around the world. Various research efforts have been made in the past to formulate plant-based fats and shortenings as substitutes for the exclusion of lard from food. This would eventually help countries to regularize food formulations according to their religious compliance. As the existence of a single plant fat as substitute for lard has not been discovered from nature, researchers attempted to study the possibility of mixing native fats and oils such as enkabang fat, canola oil, guava oil, palm oil, palm stearin, soybean oil and cocoa butter as raw materials. The compatibility of the formulated plant-based fat substitute for lard was assessed in terms of chemical composition and thermo-physical properties. The formulated plant-based shortenings and lard shortening were simply plastic fats based on their consistency value and existence of β’ and β-form polymorphs of which the β’ -form was dominant. The functional properties of formulated plant-based shortenings and lard were also compared in the formulation of cookies. Although a substantial amount of work has been done over the past decade, there was hardly any discussion on the pros and cons of the approaches used for raw material selection and the criteria adopted in the assessment of the formulated products. Hence, this review intended to bring an update of the progress of studies with regard to these two aspects.</p> J.M.N. Marikkar N.A.M. Yanty S. Musthafa M.S. Miskandhar Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 73 2 e463 e463 10.3989/gya.0439211 A novel class of bio-lubricants are synthesized by epoxidation of 10-undecylenic acid-based esters <p>Mineral-based lubricants are being supplanted by bio-based lubricants because of environmental concerns and the depletion of fossil resources. The derivatives of edible and non-edible oils are considered potential alternatives to existing natural mineral oil base stocks in certain lubricant applications, where immediate intraction with the environment is predicted. A new class of epoxides were synthesized from the undecylenic esters of 2-ethyl hexanol, neopentyl glycol (NPG), and trimethylolpropane (TMP). These unsaturated esters were epoxidized by using meta chloro perbenzoic acid. The synthesized epoxides were characterized by spectral studies (<sup>1</sup>HNMR,&nbsp;<sup>13</sup>CNMR, IR) physio-chemical (density, specific gravity) and lubricant properties (kinematic viscosity, viscosity index, flash point, fire point, cloud point, pour point, copper strip corrosion). TMP epoxide has a high viscosity index, high flash point, and low pour point compared to 2-ethyl hexyl epoxide and NPG epoxide.</p> B. Lakkoju V. Vemulapalli Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-22 2022-06-22 73 2 e464 e464 10.3989/gya.0103211 Lista de evaluadores 2021 Equipo Editorial Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 73 2 e465 e465