Grasas y Aceites <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites </strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de la Grasa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de la Grasa</a>, peer-reviewed and devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the broad field of lipids, especially edible fats and oils from different origins, including non acyl lipids from microbial origin relevant to the food industry. It publishes full research articles, research notes, reviews as well as information on references, patents, and books.</p> <p>The journal publishes original articles on basic or practical research, as well as review articles on lipid related topics in food science and technology, biology, (bio)chemistry, medical science, nutrition, (bio)technology, processing and engineering. Topics at the interface of basic research and applications are encouraged. Manuscripts related to by-products from the oil industry and the handling and treatment of the wastewaters are also welcomed.</p> <p>Topics of special interest:</p> <p>-Lipid analysis, including sensory analysis<br />-Oleochemistry, including lipase modified lipids<br />-Biochemistry and molecular biology of lipids, including genetically modified oil crops and micro-organisms<br />-Lipids in health and disease, including functional foods and clinical studies<br />-Technical aspects of oil extraction and refining<br />-Processing and storage of oleaginous fruit, especially olive pickling<br />-Agricultural practices in oil crops, when affecting oil yield or quality</p> <p>Founded in 1950 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (2 years): <strong>1.650</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (5 years): <strong>1.641</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>49</strong>/74 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>114</strong>/144 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2020: <strong>0.34</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>51</strong>/77 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>123</strong>/163 (Q3, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>0.00060</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>0.233</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Grasas y Aceites 0017-3495 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Cold-pressed cactus pear seed oil: Quality and stability <p>Cold-pressed seed oil from twelve commercially produced cactus pear cultivars was assessed for oil yield, fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, quality and stability. Large differences in oil content, fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties (IV, PV, RI, tocopherols, ORAC, % FFA, OSI and induction time) were observed. Oil content ranged between 2.51% and 5.96% (Meyers and American Giant). The important fatty acids detected were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1c9 and C18:2c9,12, with C18:2c9,12, the dominating fatty acid, ranging from 58.56-65.73%, followed by C18:1c9, ranging between 13.18-16.07%, C16:0, which ranged between 10.97 - 15.07% and C18:0, which ranged between 2.62-3.18%. Other fatty acids such as C14:0, C16:1c9, C17:0, C17:1c10, C20:0, C18:3c9,12,15 and C20:3c8,11,14 were detected in small amounts. The quality parameters of the oils were strongly influenced by oil content, fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties. Oil content, PV, % FFA, RI, IV, tocopherols, ORAC and&nbsp;<em>ρ</em>-anisidine value were negatively correlated with OSI. C18:0; C18:1c9; C18:2c9,12; MUFA; PUFA;&nbsp;<em>n</em>-6 and PUFA/SFA were also negatively correlated with OSI. Among all the cultivars, American Giant was identified as the paramount cultivar with good quality traits (oil content and oxidative stability).</p> M. de Wit V.K. Motsamai A. Hugo Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-14 2021-09-14 72 3 e415 e415 10.3989/gya.0329201 Batoko plum (Flacourtia inermis) peel extract attenuates deteriorative oxidation of selected edible oils <p>The oxidation of oils has an adverse effect on the organoleptic properties and shelf-life of stored oils.&nbsp;<em>Flacourtia inermis</em>&nbsp;is one of the underutilized fruits grown in Sri Lanka with promising antioxidant properties.&nbsp;<em>F. inermis</em>&nbsp;peel extract (FIPE) was used to retard rancidity in edible oils. The efficacy of added FIPE (500, 1000, 2000 ppm) on sunflower oil (SO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) was monitored at 3-day intervals at 65 ± 5 °C against a positive control (α-tocopherol at 500 ppm level) using Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and Peroxide Value (PV). Oils without FIPE were used as the control. Antioxidant efficacy (IC<sub>50</sub>) and Total Phenol Content (TPC) of FIPE were determined by DPPH assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the oxidative stability. The IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;value and TPC of FIPE were 227.14 ± 4.12 µg·mL<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;and 4.87 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g extract, respectively. After 21 days, VCO (control) sample exhibited significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher FFA and PV than the treatments. FIPE exhibited comparable results with α-tocopherol. Conclusively, FIPE had strong antioxidant properties and thus, could be used as an alternative to α-tocopherol to improve the oxidative stability of virgin coconut oil and sunflower oil. However, only minor differences in the FTIR spectra were detected in treated and untreated virgin coconut and sunflower oil samples after 21 days storage at 65 ± 5 °C.</p> N.E. Wedamulla W.A.J.P. Wijesinghe Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-14 2021-09-14 72 3 e416 e416 10.3989/gya.0450201 Improving biodiesel yield from pre-esterified inedible olive oil using microwave-assisted transesterification method <p>In the present research, biodiesel production from olive oils with different initial free fatty acid concentrations (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0%) was evaluated. A two-stage acid-catalyzed esterification and alkaline-catalyzed transesterification (ACT) process using the microwave heating method was compared with the traditional heating method. Free fatty acid was reduced to less than 2.0% in the first stage. Although no significant difference was observed between microwave and traditional esterification methods in terms of fatty acid reduction, the microwave treatment significantly decreased reaction time by 92.5%. Comparing microwave ACT results with those of the traditional heating method showed that the microwave can significantly increase methyl ester yield and purity, and simultaneously decrease reaction time. Physical constants of methyl esters were also improved using the microwave heating method. Therefore, the microwave heating method can be regarded as an efficient method instead of the two-stage method for biodiesel production. This method is capable of using inedible olive oil with high concentrations of free fatty acids.</p> L. Dehghan M.-T. Golmakani S.M.H. Hosseini Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-14 2021-09-14 72 3 e417 e417 10.3989/gya.0336201 Chemical and physical properties of fats produced by chemical interesterification of tallow with vegetable oils <p>This study aims at manufacturing structured lipids by chemical interesterification (CI) of beef tallow with corn, canola and safflower oils individually at various tallow blend ratios (60, 70, 80%) and catalyst concentrations (0.75, 0.875, 1%). Several physical and chemical properties of interesterified products were determined and data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Interesterified lipids were more spreadable and showed plastic behavior due to their lower consistency and solid fat contents. Decreases in melting points to a temperature range of 26.5-45.5 °C regardless of oil type were observed. Interesterified fats displayed mostly β<sup>’</sup>&nbsp;and β<sup>’</sup>+β crystal forms. The CI of tallow did not result in the formation of significant amounts of&nbsp;<em>trans</em>-fatty acids. Samples interesterified with corn oil had lower free fatty acid contents (1.87-3.9%) and higher oxidation induction times (3.82-12.25h) than other lipids. Therefore, fats containing corn oil-tallow could be used in the baking industry due to their potentially good aeration properties and smooth texture.</p> A.B. Aktas B. Ozen Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 72 3 e418 e418 10.3989/gya.0552201 Chemical parameters and antioxidant activity of turning color natural-style table olives of the Sigoise cultivar <p>A chemical characterization of turning color table olives of the Sigoise variety was made through their processing as natural-style. Polyphenols, sugars, tocopherols, fatty acids, and antioxidant activity in the olives were monitored throughout the elaboration process. Oleuropein, salidroside, hydroxytyrosol 4-glucoside, rutin, ligustroside and verbascoside showed a decrease of 16.90-83.34%, while hydroxytyrosol increased during the first months of brining. Glucose was consumed by 90% due to the metabolism of the fermentative microbiota. The tocopherol content remained stable during the process and only the α-tocopherol decreased. The fatty acids were not affected. The loss in antioxidant compounds resulted in a decrease in the percentage of DPPH radical inhibition from 75.91% in the raw fruit to 44.20% after 150 days of brining. Therefore, the turning color natural table olives of the Sigoise variety are a good source of bioactive compounds.</p> F. Ait Chabane A. Tamendjari P. Rovellini C. Romero E. Medina Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 72 3 e419 e419 10.3989/gya.0559201 Thermal and chemical characterization of fractions from Syagrus romanzoffiana kernel oil <p>The Jerivá (<em>Syagrus romanzoffiana</em>) kernel oil (JKO) has a pleasant coconut-like smell, with about 33% lauric acid and 28% oleic acid. The oil also contains bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, and tocopherols. JKO has a solid consistency at low temperatures, but has a low melting point and low solid content at room temperature. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the thermal properties related to crystallization and fusion, as well as the chemical and oxidative characteristics of JKO fractions, olein and stearin, obtained from dry and solvent fractionation. In general, stearins had higher crystallization and melting temperatures, and higher solid fat content, unlike oleins, which may be associated with the concentration of high melting triglycerides in the stearins. No statistically significant difference was found for fatty acid profile or oxidative stability of the fractions. The type of fractionation influenced the chemical and thermal properties of JKO fractions. The solvent process promoted the most relevant differentiation of fractions. An olein was obtained with 7% less solid fat at 25 °C which remained visually liquid at 2 °C below the oil, as well as a stearin with 17% more solid fat at 25 °C which remained visually solid at 3 °C above the oil.</p> T.S. Tavares K.T. Magalhães N.D. Lorenzo C.A. Nunes Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 72 3 e420 e420 10.3989/gya.0325201 Selection criteria for yield in safflower (Charthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes under rainfed conditions <p>This research was conducted on 20 safflower genotypes and lasted 3 years (2014-2016) in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. The experiments were conducted in randomized block design with four replications. The relationships among yield 9 other traits in safflower genotypes were investigated. As the average of three years, the greatest seed yield (SY) was obtained from genotype G5 (PI 451952) with 3156.3 kg·ha<sup>-1</sup>. It was followed by genotypes G4 (PI 525458) and G9 (PI 306686) with 3013.2 and 2977.1 kg·ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Among the standard cultivars, the greatest seed yield (2750.4 kg·ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained from the Dinçer cultivar. The greatest oil content (OC) was obtained from the genotype G11 (PI 537665) with 36.5%. It was followed by the genotypes G9 (PI 306686) (35.4%), G6 (PI 537598) (35.4%) and G14 (PI 560169) (35.3%). Oil contents varied between 29.1-36.5%. Yield-trait relationships were assessed through both correlation analysis and GT (Genotype by Trait) biplot analysis. Based on the results of the two approaches, plant height (PH), number of branches (NB), number of heads (NH) and thousand-seed weight (TSW) were identified as the most significant selection criteria for yield from safflower. The combined use of correlation and biplot analysis in the assessment of relationships among the traits improved the chance for success.</p> H. Koç Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 72 3 e421 e421 10.3989/gya.0449201 Phenomenological model for the prediction of Moringa oleifera extracted oil using a laboratory Soxhlet apparatus <p><em>Moringa oleifera</em>&nbsp;is an oilseed crop with poten­tial for biodiesel production. The second step in this process is the extraction of oil. Extraction in hot water, with a Soxhlet apparatus and the ultrasound technique are the most commonly used methods. The aim of the present work was to obtain a phenomenological model for the&nbsp;<em>Moringa oleifera</em>&nbsp;oil extraction process using Soxhlet. Effective diffusivity for Moringa oil through the kernels is obtained, using the kinetics of the extraction process (experimentally determined) and the Fick’s diffusion second law for non-steady state. The value of 0.685·10<sup>-12</sup>&nbsp;m<sup>2</sup>/s fully matched reports on effective diffusion coefficient for other solids. It was also verified from the statistical analysis and a linear fit for experimental data that the model can be used to describe the oil extraction process of&nbsp;<em>Moringa oleifera</em>&nbsp;in the Soxhlet extractor, responding to the diffusive phenomenon (process controlled by internal resistance).</p> Y. Díaz D. Tabio M. Rondón R. Piloto-Rodríguez E. Fernández Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-20 2021-09-20 72 3 e422 e422 10.3989/gya.0664201 Kinetic modeling of oxidation parameters and activities of lipase-lipoxygenase in wheat germ oil <p>This study aimed to investigate the oxidation profile of wheat germ oil extracted from raw germ during the stabilization with microwave (MW) treatment, and the kinetics of the oxidation parameters (free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), α-tocopherol, lipase (LA) and lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes activities) under different storage conditions. For stabilizing raw germ, the MW was treated at 700 W for three minutes. The oxidation parameters for the kinetic modeling were analyzed at different storage times (0, 15, 30, 45, 60,75, 90, and 105. days) and storage temperatures (-18, 0, 4, and 25 °C). The parameters were mathematically modelled and the PV and LA fitted well to the zero-order kinetic model, while FFA with α-tocopherol and TBA followed the first and second-order kinetics, respectively. The kinetic constant (k) was described by an Arrhenius equation and the activation energy ranged from 5.72 to 18.5 kJ/mol for the stabilized germ.</p> Y. Erim Köse Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-24 2021-09-24 72 3 e423 e423 10.3989/gya.0554201 Improving the oxidative stability of breadsticks with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) and ginseng (Panax ginseng) dried extracts <p>Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of natural antioxidants instead of synthetic ones. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of ginkgo and ginseng dried extracts as natural antioxidants on the stability of lipids in breadsticks over 55 days of storage at room temperature compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. Ginkgo and ginseng dried extracts were incorporated individually into breadstick formulae at levels of 0.5 and 1% to enhance its oxidative stability in storage. The increases in peroxide,&nbsp;<em>p</em>-anisidine and Totox values in the oil phase of the samples during storage were monitored. The changes in hydroperoxide, trans fatty acid and aldehyde contents were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The sensory analysis was performed to evaluate the perceptible changes occurring during storage. The results indicated that the oxidation of oil in breadstick samples can be retarded by enriching the breadstick formula with dried ginseng extract at a 1% level.</p> K.S.M. Hammad N.F.S. Morsy E.A. Abd El-Salam Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 72 3 e424 e424 10.3989/gya.0334201 Changes in fatty acid profile of Holothuria forskali muscle following acute mercury exposure <p>The present study aimed to document the interaction between mercury (Hg), as a model chemical stressor to an aquatic organism, and Fatty acid (FA) profile in the longitudinal muscle of the sea cucumber&nbsp;<em>Holothuria forskali</em>. To assess the sensitivity of this species to the toxic effects of Hg, young&nbsp;<em>H. forskali</em>&nbsp;were exposed to gradual doses of Hg (40, 80 and160 µg·L<sup>-1</sup>) for 96 h. The results showed that following Hg exposure, the FA profile of&nbsp;<em>H. forskali</em>&nbsp;corresponded to an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids, and the decrease in the level of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The most prominent changes in the FA composition were recorded at the lowest dose with noticeable decreases in linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels and an increase of docosahexaenoic acid. The occurrence of a state of oxidative stress induced by Hg contamination was evidenced by the enhanced levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide. Overall, the low concentration of mercury exerted the most obvious effects on lipid metabolism, suggesting that changes in fatty acid composition may be act as an early biomarker to assess mercury toxicity in this ecologically and economically important species.</p> I. Rabeh K. Telahigue T. Hajji C. Fouzai M. El Cafsi N. Soudani Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 72 3 e425 e425 10.3989/gya.0335201 Quality detection of tea oil by 19F NMR and 1H NMR <p>The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was applied to monitor the quality of tea oil herein. The adulteration of virgin tea oil was monitored by&nbsp;<sup>19</sup>F NMR and&nbsp;<sup>1</sup>H NMR. The&nbsp;<sup>19</sup>F NMR technique was used as a new method to detect the changes in quality and hydroperoxide value of tea oil. The research demonstrates that&nbsp;<sup>19</sup>F NMR and&nbsp;<sup>1</sup>H NMR can quickly detect adulteration in tea oil. High temperature caused a decrease in the ratio D and increase in the total diglyceride content. Some new peaks belonging to the derivatives of hydroperoxides appeared at δ-108.21 and δ-109.05 ppm on the&nbsp;<sup>19</sup>F NMR spectrum when the oil was autoxidized and became larger when the hydroperoxide value increased. These results have great significance in monitoring the moisture content, freshness and oxidation status of oils and in detecting adulteration in high priced edible oils by mixing with cheap oils.</p> T. Liu T.M. Olajide W. Wang Z. Cheng Q. Cheng X.C. Weng Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-24 2021-09-24 72 3 e426 e426 10.3989/gya.0662201