Grasas y Aceites <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites </strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de la Grasa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de la Grasa</a>, peer-reviewed and devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the broad field of lipids, especially edible fats and oils from different origins, including non acyl lipids from microbial origin relevant to the food industry. It publishes full research articles, research notes, reviews as well as information on references, patents, and books.</p> <p>The journal publishes original articles on basic or practical research, as well as review articles on lipid related topics in food science and technology, biology, (bio)chemistry, medical science, nutrition, (bio)technology, processing and engineering. Topics at the interface of basic research and applications are encouraged. Manuscripts related to by-products from the oil industry and the handling and treatment of the wastewaters are also welcomed.</p> <p>Topics of special interest:</p> <p>-Lipid analysis, including sensory analysis<br />-Oleochemistry, including lipase modified lipids<br />-Biochemistry and molecular biology of lipids, including genetically modified oil crops and micro-organisms<br />-Lipids in health and disease, including functional foods and clinical studies<br />-Technical aspects of oil extraction and refining<br />-Processing and storage of oleaginous fruit, especially olive pickling<br />-Agricultural practices in oil crops, when affecting oil yield or quality</p> <p>Founded in 1950 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor </strong>2020 (2 years): <strong>1.650</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor </strong>2020 (5 years): <strong>1.641</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank: </strong><strong>49</strong>/74 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank: </strong><strong>114</strong>/144 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>0.00060</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>0.233</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Grasas y Aceites 0017-3495 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Informative Note: Captive fatty acids of fresh olive oils? <p>Olive oil is mainly made up of triglycerides. It is well known that olive oil contains free fatty acids, the proportion of which is variable, depending on the extent of the hydrolysis of triglycerides. Besides, globular structures have been reported in cloudy virgin olive oils. The pseudo-walls of these globules would be constituted by amphiphilic molecules, while fatty acids are amphiphilic. This brief review aims to inform on the importance of the possible interaction of ‘free’ fatty acids of veiled virgin olive oils, as structural units in the pseudo-wall of the colloidal globules, already reported. The binding of fatty acids to the colloidal globules can mean they are not free in the olive oil. They could be ‘captive’ in said pseudo-walls, thus exerting less influence on the perception of acidity by the consumer or taster of the olive oils. The official method of analysis of olive oil acidity cannot detect this effect. This may suppose that functional acidity is lower than the acidity values determined by chemical analysis in cloudy virgin olive oils.</p> J.A. Cayuela-Sánchez Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 72 2 e413 e413 Reviewers List 2020 Equipo Editorial Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 72 2 e414 e414 The impact of different levels of nisin as a biopreservative agent on the chemical, sensory and microbiological quality of vacuum-packed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets stored at 4 ± 2 °C <p>Nisin is produced by <em>Lactococcus lactis </em>subsp. <em>lactis </em>and is also known as an antimicrobial agent especially effective against gram-positive bacteria. It has long been used as a preservative in foods and beverages and is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). In the present work, the effects of different concentrations of nisin (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8%) on the sensory, chemical and microbiological quality and shelf-life of vacuum-packed sea bass (<em>Dicentrarchus labrax</em>) fillets were investigated during chilled (4 ± 2 °C) storage. The sensory points for raw and cooked fillets increased with time during the storage period (p &lt; 0.05). The control group, with scores of 9.08, was rejected by panelists on day 12; whereas nisin-treated groups were rejected on day 14 with scores ranging from 9.00-9.17 score. As a result of chemical analyses, lower values (p &lt; 0.05) were obtained from the nisin groups with low oxidative rancidity. Moreover, nisin inhibited microbial growth, which shows antimicrobial activity. Consequently, it was concluded that the application of nisin (especially 0.8%) preserved the organoleptic quality and extended the shelf-life of sea bass fillets.</p> Y. Ucar Y. Ozogul F. Ozogul M. Durmus A.R. Kösker E. Küley Boga Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 72 2 e401 e401 10.3989/gya.1261192 Lipid composition of different parts of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit and valorization of seed and peel waste <p>The consumption of Cape gooseberry (<em>Physalis peruviana </em>L.) fruit (CG), fresh or processed, is gaining popularity worldwide, due to its nutritional and medicinal benefits. This study was based on the analysis of the lipid fraction of different parts of CG fruit and on further valorization of the resulting CG waste. The content of glyceride oil in CG seeds, peels and seed/peel waste, as well as the individual fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol composition of the oils was determined. CG seeds and seed/peel waste were a rich source of oil (up to 22.93%), which is suitable for nutritional application, due to its high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (up to 83.77%), sterols (campesterol, Δ<span class="s2">5</span>-аvenasterol, β<strong><em>-</em></strong>sitosterol) and tocopherols (β<strong><em>-</em></strong>, δ<strong><em>- </em></strong>and γ-tocopherols). Seed/peel waste and the extracted seed cakes contained macro- and microminerals (K, Mg, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu) which are important for human and animal nutrition. Seed cakes had relatively high protein (24.32%) and cellulose (42.94%) contents, and an interesting amino acid profile. The results from the study contribute to a deeper understanding of the composition of CG fruit, and might be of practical relevance in the development of functional foods and feeds.</p> V. Popova Z. Petkova T. Ivanova M. Stoyanova N. Mazova A. Stoyanova Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 72 2 e402 e402 10.3989/gya.1256192 Chemical compositon, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Cnidium silaifolium ssp. orientale (Boiss.) Tutin essential oils <p>The chemical compositions of the essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydrodistillation from different parts of <em>Cnidium silaifolium </em>ssp. <em>orientale </em>(Boiss.) Tutin were analyzed both by GC-FID and GC/MS, simultaneously. One hundred nine compounds representing 90.1% of the total volatiles in the EOs were identified with the main characteristic compounds α-pinene (50.3%) in the root, germacrene D (20.3%) in the fruit, and β-caryophyllene (18.7%) in the aerial parts of <em>C. silaifolium </em>ssp. <em>orientale. </em>The antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was evaluated by the <em>in vitro </em>microdilution method. Antibacterial succeptibility was observed from the root and aerial part EOs against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(0.039 and 0.156 mg/mL, respectively); while the fruit EO was most effective against <em>Bacillus cereus </em>at 0.07 mg/mL. The antioxidant capacities of the EOs were also evaluated by <em>in vitro </em>DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging assays, where no significant activity was observed compared to ascorbic acid and Trolox.</p> A.E. Karadağ B. Demirci Ö. Çeçen F. Tosun F. Demirci Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 72 2 e403 e403 10.3989/gya.1146192 Effects of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds on health: solid evidence or just another fiasco? <p>Current research suggests that virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolics are potent preventive and therapeutic agents against metabolic diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Evidence-based medicine requires these effects be proved in randomized controlled trials (RCT), which are then assessed in meta-analyses, to ensure that the alleged health benefits really proceed in humans. The available evidence is limited to the ability of VOO phenolic compounds to protect lipoproteins from oxidation and to reduce systolic pressure in hypertensive individuals. No RCT assessing the effects of VOO phenolics on diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases have been performed, and those focused on osteoarthritis and cancer provided very scarce information. Therefore, RCT in extensive and diverse population groups, with different disorders and phenolic doses adjusted to usual VOO consumptions are necessary to achieve high quality scientific evidence before nutritional recommendations can be given to the general public.</p> J.M. Castellano J.S. Perona Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 72 2 e404 e404 10.3989/gya.0217201 Application of mixed starter culture for table olive production <p>The fermentation of olives is usually carried out spontaneously by natural microbiota. Spontaneous fermentation has some disadvantages, such as the formation of defects in the end product due to the activities of undesirable microorganisms. The use of starter cultures could be a promising option to provide a more controlled fermentation environment and to reduce the risk of spoilage. Mixed starter culture use (generally selected <em>Lactobacillus </em>strains with or without yeasts) could reduce pH in a shorter time, producing a higher amount of lactic acid and enhancing microbial safety compared to fermentation with starter cultures containing single species or natural fermentation. Their use could also enhance the organoleptical properties of table olives. Particularly the use of yeast (such as strains of <em>W. anomolus</em>, <em>S. cerevisiae) </em>in the fermentation of olives, in combination or sequentially with lactic acid bacteria could result in an increase in volatile compounds and a more aromatic final product.</p> Z.Ş. Erdemir Tıraş H. Kalkan Yıldırım Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 72 2 e405 e405 10.3989/gya.0220201 Effects of different baking techniques on the quality of walnut and its oil <p>The baking conditions of walnut kernels were optimized based on different cultivars and baking methods. The influence of the different baking techniques on the chemical properties of walnut oils was determined. The results showed that acid value, peroxide value and induction period (IP) all significantly increased in the baked samples compared to the unbaked ones. The highest increase in IP was from 6 to 17 h indicating that baking can improve the oxidative stability of walnut oils and prolong their shelf-life. Several aroma components increased after baking. However, among the different baking conditions, the strongest aroma in walnut oil was observed after baking was done for 20 min with sucrose (107%) at 153 <span class="s2">℃</span>. Nevertheless, baking had little effect on the fatty acid composition of walnuts.</p> B.K. Niu T.M. Olajide H.A. Liu H. Pasdar X.C. Weng Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 72 2 e406 e406 10.3989/gya.1142192 Inoculation with acetic acid bacteria improves the quality of natural green table olives <p>This study aims to develop a method for the preparation of natural table olives using locally selected microorganisms and without resorting to the usual techniques which employ lye treatment and acids. The effects of parameters, such as lye treatment, inoculation with yeasts, substitution of organic acids with vinegar and/or acetic acid bacteria, and finally alternating aeration have been assessed. Four different combinations were applied to the “<em>Picholine marocaine</em>” olive variety using indigenous strains, namely <em>Lactobacillus plantarum </em>S1, <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae </em>LD01 and <em>Acetobacter pasteurianus </em>KU710511 (CV01) isolated respectively from olive brine, <em>Bouslikhen </em>dates and Cactus. Two control tests, referring to traditional and industrial processes, were used as references. Microbial and physicochemical tests showed that the L3V combination (inoculated with <em>A. pasteurianus </em>KU710511 and <em>L. plantarum </em>S1 under the optimal growth conditions of the Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) strain with 6% NaCl) was found to be favorable for the growth of the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strain which plays the key role in olive fermentation. This result was confirmed by sensory evaluation, placing L3V at the top of the evaluated samples, surpassing the industrial one where a chemical debittering treatment with lye was used. In addition, alternating aeration served to increase the microbial biomass of both AAB and LAB strains along with <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae </em>LD01 strain, but also to use lower concentration of NaCl and to reduce the deterioration of olives compared to the anaerobic fermentation process. Finally, a mixed starter containing the three strains was prepared in a 10-L Lab-fermenter from the L3V sample in order to improve it in subsequent studies. The prepared starter mixture could be suitable for use as a parental strain to prepare table olives for artisan and industrial application in Morocco.</p> M. Mounir J. Hammoucha O. Taleb M. Afechtal A. Hamouda M. Ismaili Alaoui Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 72 2 e407 e407 10.3989/gya.1259192 Determination of Hansen solubility parameters for sugarcane oil. Use of ethanol in sugarcane wax refining <p>Currently, the refining of sugarcane wax is carried out with 95% v/v ethanol as solvent. This process has a high rate of ethanol consumption thus, the main objective of this work was to corroborate the feasibility of 95% v/v ethanol as a solvent in the refining of sugarcane wax. The suitability of its performance over other organic solvents was evaluated through the relative energy difference (RED) determined from Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) of sugarcane oil, which were calculated using HSPiP software. HSPs turned out to be δ<sub>D</sub>&nbsp;= 16.24 MPa<sup>½</sup>, δ<sub>P</sub>&nbsp;= 3.21 MPa<sup>½</sup>&nbsp;and δ<sub>H</sub>&nbsp;= 10.34 MPa<sup>½</sup>, similar to those reported for pine resin and castor oil. The best solvent was 1-decanol. 95% v/v ethanol turned out to be a bad solvent. Absolute ethanol had a RED value of 0.993, which made it a better candidate since it could reduce consumption rates, and constituted an eco-friendly solvent produced in Cuba for the refining process.</p> E. Hernández M. Díaz K. Pérez Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 72 2 e408 e408 10.3989/gya.0326201 Passion fruit seed oil: extraction and subsequent transesterification reaction <p>This work aims to remove the oil from passion fruit seeds using ethanol as solvent and then to carry out the transesterification of the product from the extraction step (oil + ethanol). The effects of operational variables in the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were evaluated and traditional extraction was performed for comparison. The extraction product was directed to the reaction step using an enzymatic catalyst. UAE provided oil yield from 12.32 to 21.76%, and the maximum value (73.7% of the traditional extraction yield) was obtained at 60 °C and 50 min using a solvent-to-seed ratio of 4. Oil removal was favored by increases in the investigated variables. g-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol and a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids were identified in the oils. The oil obtained by UAE presented higher phytosterol contents. From the reaction step, samples were obtained with higher concentrations of ethyl esters, in addition to emulsifiers (diglycerides and monoglycerides).</p> T.B. Massa I.J. Iwassa N. Stevanato V.A.S. Garcia C. Silva Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 72 2 e409 e409 10.3989/gya.0442201 Effect of process parameters on emulsion stability and droplet size of pomegranate oil-in-water <p>The development of efficient emulsion is essential and requires a good understanding of the parameters that govern the formation and stability of the emulsion. The droplet size significantly affects the stability of the emulsion. In this study, the stability of pomegranate oil-in-water emulsions (0.5 to 7.0% v/v) was investigated using various emulsifiers in terms of droplet size and instability index during 16 days of storage. The Mastersizer and Lumisizer were used to measure the droplet size and instability index. It was observed that the minimum droplet size was achieved by using 0.3% carboxy methyl cellulose (5.37 μm) and maximum with 1.0/2.5% whey protein/maltodextrin (24.26 μm). The Lumisizer results during storage revealed the higher emulsion stability of carboxy methyl cellulose due to smaller droplet size and high thickness as compared to other emulsions studied. The findings of the present study would be useful for food applications to obtain fine and stable microcapsules.</p> A.H. Kori S.A. Mahesar S.T.H. Sherazi U.A. Khatri Z.H. Laghari T. Panhwar Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 72 2 e410 e410 10.3989/gya.0219201 Characterization of the chemical and nutritive quality of coldpressed grape seed oils produced in the Republic of Serbia from different red and white grape varieties <p>Six cold-pressed oil samples obtained from the seeds of different grape varieties grown in a Fruška Gora vineyard in the Republic of Serbia were examined for chemical and nutritive quality, as well as antiradical capacity. All the tested samples were of good quality, but the results showed noticeable differences in seed oil properties for red and white grape varieties. The highest content in total tocols, 575.23 ± 4.46 mg/kg, was found in the red grape seed oil of the Merlot variety, but the vitamin E activity of white grape seed oils was significantly higher. Regarding single phenols, the most prevalent fraction in all the oil samples was ursolic acid, up to 336.3 ± 4.8 μg/g in the grape seed oil of the Hamburg variety. The highest content in the total phenolic compounds, 54.92 ± 0.93 μg GAE/g, was detected in the oil of red grape seeds. Although significant differences existed between samples, EC<sub>50</sub> values were the lowest for the red grape seed oils, varying from 29.84 ± 1.07 to 65.34 ± 0.32 mg oil/mg DPPH, indicating that these oils had the highest antiradical capacity.</p> V.B. Vujasinović M.M. Bjelica S.C. Čorbo S.B. Dimić B.B. Rabrenović Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 72 2 e411 e411 10.3989/gya.0222201 Physicochemical properties of red palm oil extruded potato and sweet potato snacks <p>Extruded potato (P) and sweet potato (SP) products with red palm oil (RPO) were prepared under different conditions. Superior product characteristics such as sensory score, expansion ratio, and water solubility index, among others, were obtained at high extrusion temperature (150-155 °C) and low water feed rate to the extruder (50.4-50.8 mL/min). The optimal products, P<sub>1</sub> and SP<sub>1</sub>, had high micronutrients as their total contents of β-carotene, squalene, tocopherols, and tocotrienols were 883.2, 304.4, 262.4, and 397.0 mg/kg of oil, respectively. The average peroxide value was 4.3 meq O<sub>2</sub>/kg oil, <em>p</em>-anisidine value 3.3, and induction period (100 °C) 11.4 h. Moreover, RPO extruded with P showed a better extrusion behavior but lower micronutrient retention and oxidative stability than that extruded with SP. Thus, the finding herein is important for investigating extrusion conditions, increasing variety, improving nutritional quality, assessing applicability and predicting the shelf-life of RPO-P/SP-extruded food.</p> Y.Y. Liu T.M. Olajide M. Sun M. Ji J.H. Yoong X.C. Weng Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 72 2 e412 e412 10.3989/gya.0214201