Grasas y Aceites <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites </strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de la Grasa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de la Grasa</a>, peer-reviewed and devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the broad field of lipids, especially edible fats and oils from different origins, including non acyl lipids from microbial origin relevant to the food industry. It publishes full research articles, research notes, reviews as well as information on references, patents, and books.</p> <p>The journal publishes original articles on basic or practical research, as well as review articles on lipid related topics in food science and technology, biology, (bio)chemistry, medical science, nutrition, (bio)technology, processing and engineering. Topics at the interface of basic research and applications are encouraged. Manuscripts related to by-products from the oil industry and the handling and treatment of the wastewaters are also welcomed.</p> <p>Topics of special interest:</p> <p>-Lipid analysis, including sensory analysis<br />-Oleochemistry, including lipase modified lipids<br />-Biochemistry and molecular biology of lipids, including genetically modified oil crops and micro-organisms<br />-Lipids in health and disease, including functional foods and clinical studies<br />-Technical aspects of oil extraction and refining<br />-Processing and storage of oleaginous fruit, especially olive pickling<br />-Agricultural practices in oil crops, when affecting oil yield or quality</p> <p>Founded in 1950 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (2 years): <strong>1.416</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (5 years): <strong>1.738</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>55</strong>/72 (Q4, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>121</strong>/143 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2021: <strong>0.32</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>55</strong>/74 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>126</strong>/164 (Q3, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.00048</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.203</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. (Grasas y Aceites, Editor-in-Chief) (Soporte Técnico Revistas-CSIC) vie, 30 dic 2022 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Review on preparation methods, mechanisms and applications for antioxidant peptides in oil <p>Natural antioxidants, especially those used in edible oil, are safer compared to chemically synthesized antioxidants. Therefore, research on natural antioxidants has become prevelant. Antioxidant peptides derived from food protein can effectively prevent oil oxidation. Protein hydrolyzation is widely applied for the production of antioxidant peptides in industry, and bioinformatics is employed nowadays to generate the desired peptide sequence. Furthermore, the mechanism of antioxidant peptides in the oil system is still controversial, which limits the further development of antioxidant peptides as food antioxidants. This review introduces the preparation method of antioxidant peptides and their mechanisms as well as applications in the oil. It will help to comprehensively understand the function of antioxidant peptides and promote their development in the oil field.</p> F.G. Pan, E.Q. Yang, J.Y. Xu, Y.F. Lu, C.X. Yang, Y.D. Zhang, S. Li, B.Q. Liu Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) jue, 15 dic 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Can rice bran, sesame, and olive oils be used as substitutes for soybean oil to improve French salad dressing quality? <p>Soybean oil is a commonly-used vegetable oil for the industrial manufacture of French salad dressing. The effect of rice bran, sesame, olive, and soybean oils on French salad dressing’s quality characteristics was investigated. After one month, the highest acidity, peroxide value (PV), and the lowest emulsion stability were observed in the control containing soybean oil (<em>p &lt; 0.05</em>). Samples formulated with sesame (T4) and rice bran oils (T3) had the lowest PVs. Color measurement results indicated that a* of a sample containing olive oil (T2) was most influenced and declined on the 30th day (<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05). In the rheological test, samples were solid viscoelastic. The elastic modulus and complex viscosity of T2 were slightly higher. The highest and the lowest overall sensory acceptance belonged to T3 and T2, respectively. Therefore, soybean oil could be replaced to obtain a more desirable product. Finally, T3 was selected as the superior sample.</p> A. Izadi, S. Mansouripour, Y. Ramezan, S. Talebzadeh Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) jue, 15 dic 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Effect of different extraction methods on saffron antioxidant activity, total phenolic and crocin contents and the protective effect of saffron extract on the oxidative stability of common vegetable oils <p>Saffron consists of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties and is mainly used in medicine, flavoring and coloring. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of extraction methods on the antioxidant activity of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extracts (SE) and to evaluate the antioxidant performance of SE in vegetable oils. Saffron stigmas were extracted in water, ethanol, methanol, and their combinations using maceration extraction (ME), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and the combination of UAE with MAE. The results showed that the sample extracted by methanol/water (50:50) using the combination of UAE with MAE methods had the highest amount of total phenolic content (31.56 mg/g GAE) and antioxidant activity (83.24% inhibition). The extract with the highest antioxidant activity was freeze-dried before incorporation into oil samples. Freeze-dried SE contained trans-crocin-4 and trans-crocin-3 (most abundant constituents), kaempferol, and picrocrocin. Moreover, the addition of SE at 1000 ppm resulted in a significant increase in the oxidative stability of canola (CAO), sunflower (SO), and corn oil (COO).</p> Z. Najafi, H.A. Zahran, N. Şahin Yeşilçubuk, H. Gürbüz Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) vie, 30 dic 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Cold-pressed milk thistle seed oil: physico-chemical properties, composition and sensory analysis <p>Cold pressed oil was produced from milk thistle seeds, and its composition and sensorial properties were determined. The seeds were found to contain 14.98% oil, 17.31% protein and 4.14% ash. The peroxide value of the oil (11.39 meqO<sub>2</sub>/kg oil) was within acceptable limits according to codex, but the free fatty acidity value (3.45%) exceeded the limit. The oil melted at -20.18 °C and crystallized at -3.71 °C. Linoleic acid (51.97%), β-sitosterol (67.56 mg/100 g oil) and γ-tocopherol (53.60 mg/kg oil) were determined as the main components, respectively. Six sensory descriptive terms (sweet, spicy, raw vegetable, straw, roasted and throat-catching) were described for the oil. Consumer tests proved that cold-pressed milk thistle seed oil had intermediate acceptance scores and consumer satisfaction was moderate. In conclusion, it is thought that milk thistle seeds could be used for the production of edible gourmet oil. Further studies regarding the composition of the bio-active molecules in the oil are anticipated.</p> A. Ayduğan, S. Ok, E. Yılmaz Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) jue, 15 dic 2022 00:00:00 +0100 From seeds to bioenergy: a conversion path for the valorization of castor and jatropha sedes <p>The world’s energy matrix can be diversified with biodiesel from castor and jatropha oil. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess a conversion path for the valorization of castor and jatropha seeds. The results showed the maximum extraction of castor oil at 90 °C, 2 rpm, and 6 mm nozzle, achieving a yield of 36.97% and for jatropha oil at 100 °C, 1.5 rpm, and 10 mm nozzle, achieving a yield of 20.11%. The acid value and cloud point of castor and jatropha oil were 0.797 and 23.44 mg KOH/g, 10±1 °C and 12±0.55 °C, respectively; while the pour point was -3 °C for both. The acid value and cloud point for biodiesels ranged from 0.26-0.43 mg KOH/g, and -12.50-6.10 °C, respectively. The viscosity of oils and biodiesel ranged from 0.02-1.3 P. GC-MS indicated 66.38% of methyl ricinoleate in castor biodiesel and 31.64% of methyl oleate in jatropha biodiesel. The HHV for castor and jatropha biodiesel ranged from 32.37-40.25 MJ/kg.</p> D.G. Montes-Núñez, G. Montero-Alpírez, M.A. Coronado-Ortega, J.R. Ayala-Bautista, J.A. León-Valdez, A.M. Vázquez-Espinoza, R. Torres-Ramos, C. García-González Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) jue, 15 dic 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Obtaining hydrolysate from macauba oil and its application in the production of methyl esters <p>This work aimed to obtain a hydrolyzate rich in free fatty acids (FFA) from the hydrolysis of macauba oil for subsequent esterification and obtaining of methyl esters. To determine the conditions that maximize FFA yield in the hydrolysis step, the effects of buffer solution percentage and catalyst concentration (Lipozyme<sup>®</sup>&nbsp;RM IM) were determined at 55 ºC and 6 h. From the results, it was verified that both variables evaluated in the experimental range had an influence on the reaction and their increase favored the production of FFA. Additional experiments were carried out to assess the influence of reaction time with a progressive increase up to 8 h. Hydrolyzate with ~92 wt % FFA was obtained and its use in the enzymatic esterification step using Novozym® 435 as catalyst resulted in ~95 % FFA conversion. Regarding the reuse of enzymes at each stage, a ~50 % reduction in FFA yield was found and only 98 % FFA conversion.</p> D.T. Raspe, N. Stevanato, T.B. Massa, C. Silva Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) vie, 30 dic 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Effect of vacuum impregnation on physical changes during table olive processing <p>Among the benefits which vacuum impregnation (VI) may provide to fruits and vegetables, this study focused on weight and texture changes during the processing of table olives. VI applied to Manzanilla olives led to around 10% weight gain, which was maintained after their packing as black olives. However, this weight gain was only around 4 % for Hojiblanca olives. Likewise, the use of calcium chloride was recommended to maintain the firmness of the olives, in particular those of the softer Manzanilla cultivar. With regard to the Spanish-style, the Hojiblanca cultivar achieved around 4% weight gain during processing but the use of VI for Manzanilla olives was ruled out due to softening of the fruit. In addition. the black and green color of olives and their flavor were not modified by the application of VI. This technology could be very useful to reduce weight loss during table olive processing.</p> C. Romero, P. García-García, A.H. Sánchez, M. Brenes Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) vie, 16 dic 2022 00:00:00 +0100