Grasas y Aceites <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites </strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de la Grasa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de la Grasa</a>, peer-reviewed and devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the broad field of lipids, especially edible fats and oils from different origins, including non acyl lipids from microbial origin relevant to the food industry. It publishes full research articles, research notes, reviews as well as information on references, patents, and books.</p> <p>The journal publishes original articles on basic or practical research, as well as review articles on lipid related topics in food science and technology, biology, (bio)chemistry, medical science, nutrition, (bio)technology, processing and engineering. Topics at the interface of basic research and applications are encouraged. Manuscripts related to by-products from the oil industry and the handling and treatment of the wastewaters are also welcomed.</p> <p>Topics of special interest:</p> <p>-Lipid analysis, including sensory analysis<br />-Oleochemistry, including lipase modified lipids<br />-Biochemistry and molecular biology of lipids, including genetically modified oil crops and micro-organisms<br />-Lipids in health and disease, including functional foods and clinical studies<br />-Technical aspects of oil extraction and refining<br />-Processing and storage of oleaginous fruit, especially olive pickling<br />-Agricultural practices in oil crops, when affecting oil yield or quality</p> <p>Founded in 1950 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Grasas y Aceites</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor </strong>2019 (2 years): <strong>1.140</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor </strong>2019 (5 years): <strong>1.311</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank: </strong><strong>52</strong>/71 (Q3, Chemistry, Applied)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank: </strong><strong>108</strong>/139 (Q4, Food Science &amp; Technology)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2019: <strong>0.00070</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2019: <strong>0.223</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. (Grasas y Aceites, Editor-in-Chief) (Soporte Técnico Revistas-CSIC) mar, 30 mar 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Preparation and characterization of oleogels with tallow and partially hydrolyzed tallow as organogelators <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the organogelation potential of tallow fat (TF) and partially hydrolyzed tallow fat (HTF) against saturated monoglyceride (MG) and a saturated monoglyceride + diglyceride mixture (MDG) as the organogelators. TF itself created oleogel at a 30% addition level, while HTF, MG and MDG oleogels were prepared at 10% addition levels. Fatty acid composition data showed that the oleogel of HTF (HTFO) was quite similar to those of MG and MDG oleogels. Solid fat content, free fatty acidity and peroxide values were found to be in acceptable ranges for HTFO. Thermal properties, crystal morphology and X-ray diffraction patterns were also evaluated. Rheological analyses indicated that all oleogels had higher storage modulus (G´) than loss modulus (G´´). The time-sweep test showed that after applying higher shear rates, the gels re-formed at rest. Further, all oleogels maintained their gelled consistency until around 54 °C. The results suggest that HTF could be a cheap, efficient, fast melting, safe and readily available organogelator.</p> E. Keskin Uslu, E. Yılmaz Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 24 feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Analyses and evaluation of the main chemical components in different tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) genotypes <p>The nicotine, reducing sugar and ion contents from the threshing of tobacco can re-used from the industry. The crude oil and fatty oil compositions of tobacco seeds can be considered as an alternative source of raw material for biodiesel. In this study, the nicotine, reducing sugar content, crude oil, fatty acid composition and ion content were determined in 29 genotypes and 1 cultivar of tobacco. The genetic diversity was determined among the tobacco cultivar and genotypes base on examined properties. The nicotine content varied between 0.10-0.87%, reducing sugar ranged from 9.70-21.30%, crude oil varied between 24.33-47.00% and fatty acid compositions was found in the range of 77.94-100%. Linoleic (13.92-75.04%) and butyric (0.33-64.98%) acids were the major components. Overall, the BSR-5 (52.56 mg/g) and ESR-5 (44.58 mg/g) genotypes exhibited the highest potassium contents and ESR-7 (6.54 mg/g) and ESR-8 (1.28 mg/g) genotypes had the lowest chlorine contents. As a result of this study, the highest nicotine content, reducing sugar and crude oil of tobacco were found in ESR-4, ESR-11 and BSR-5 genotypes, respectively. The dendrogram analysis divided the tobacco into two main groups and most of the same origin genotypes fell into the same group. The results indicated that the different tobacco leaves and seeds can be evaluated as an alternative source in the industry as cigarettes, biodiesel and different industrial applications such as cosmetic, oil paints and varnishes based on their chemical properties.</p> M. Camlica, G. Yaldiz Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 24 feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Common Kilka oil and its primary and secondary oxidative dynamics stabilized by different variants of clove essential oil <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the properties of clove essential oil extracted by different microwave-assisted methods and to evaluate its effects on the stability of common Kilka oil. Each of these methods was hypothesized to yield a clove essential oil that would have a distinguishable composition and effect when added to common Kilka oil by maintaining its oxidative stability. The oxidation of common Kilka oil was examined by accelerated oxidation using the active oxygen method and Rancimat test. The clove essential oil extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation showed the highest induction period according to the active oxygen method (16.56 h) and the Rancimat induction period (3.64 h) in common Kilka oil and its antioxidant activity was comparable to that of BHT (16.59 h and 4.34 h, respectively) and tocopheryl acetate (16.30 h and 4.02 h, respectively). Furthermore, the microwaveassisted hydrodistillation method resulted in the amount of eugenol that exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity for preserving PUFA in common Kilka oil. Ultimately, clove essential oil can become an efficient natural antioxidant for the oxidative stability of common Kilka oil.</p> M.T. Golmakani, E. Dorostkar, M. Keramat Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mar, 02 mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Effect of the damages caused by the green shield bug (Palomena prasina L.) on the qualitative traits of hazelnuts <p>This study was conducted in 2018 to determine the effects of green shield bug damage (GD) on the chemical properties of the hazelnut cultivar “Tombul”. The proximate composition, protein, total lipid (TL), carbohydrate, total ash ratio (TA), vitamin E (VE), total phenolics, energy values (EV), color value, fatty acid composition, total fatty acids, lipid oxidation, and nutritional quality index properties of the kernel were detected in relation to the "bug damage". The level of TL, TA, VE, EV, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and unsaturated/saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) were found to be lower in GD kernels than in good kernels (GK). Although the GD kernels had higher iodine, free fatty acidity, and peroxide levels, they showed lower oleic/linoleic acid levels, and rancimat values. In addition, the GD kernels contained lower PUFA/SFA and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratios but higher atherogenicity and thrombogenicity index values.</p> A. Turan Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 03 mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Preliminary investigation of possible effects of mineral clay treatment applied to oils produced from olives: focus on moisture removal and compositional changes <p>In this preliminary study, two non-filtered virgin olive oils (one freshly produced VOO-N; one VOO-O stored for one year) were subjected to moisture removal with mineral clay (raw or activated) and analyses were performed to attest possible effects on the quality of the product. The results demonstrated that the treatment of oil with mineral clay at 36-38 °C had no negative effect on the basic quality parameters or on the volatile comound profile. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the water amount as well as in pigments was observed in the samples subjected to this kind of treatment, in particular with raw clay. Regarding the colour measurement, the lightness (L) as well as the consumers’ acceptability exhibited a marked increase when oils were treated with raw clay.</p> M. Issaoui, M. Mosbahi, S. Barbieri, G. Flamini, A. Bendini, R. Ascrizzi, T. Gallina Toschi, M. Hammami Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 24 feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of Angelica glauca and Chenopodium album seed extracts from Kashmir <p><em>Angelica glauca</em> Edgew. and <em>Chenopodium album</em> Linn. are medicinally important plants with aromatic, nutritious and flavor-enhancing properties. In this study the fatty acid composition of petroleum ether seed extracts (PE) of processed plants were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PE consisted mainly of unsaturated fatty acids, such as petroselinic acid 74.26% and oleic acid 7.37% for <em>A. glauca</em> and linoleic acid 53.05% and oleic acid 20.74% for <em>C. album</em>. The de-fatted seed extracts were screened for their antioxidant activities using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Almost all the assays resulted in defatted seed extracts showing powerful radical scavenging activity. These findings suggest that the processed plants could be used as ingredients (as a source of natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids) for the formulation of functional foods.</p> Z.R. Nengroo, A. Rauf Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 03 mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Quality attributes of roasted Arabica coffee oil extracted by pressing: composition, antioxidant activity, sun protection factor and other physical and chemical parameters <p>This research reports a comprehensive characterization of the composition profile and physical and chemical characteristics of roasted Arabica coffee oil obtained by mechanical pressing. The oil presented a peroxide value of 3.21 meq·kg<sup>-1</sup> and an acid value of 7.3 mg KOH·g<sup>-1</sup>. A higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (58%), predominantly linoleic (L) and palmitic (P) acids, was observed; PLL and PLP were estimated as the main triacylglycerols. The oil was characterized by high contents in diterpenes and tocopherols (3720 and 913 mg·100g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively), the presence of caffeine and chlorogenic acids, as well as a high sun protection factor (9.7) and ABTS free radical-scavenging capacity (12.5 mg Trolox·mL<sup>-1</sup>). Among the 35 volatile compounds studied, furfurythiol and pyrazines were the main components of the oil. These properties showed that roasted coffee oil has good potential for use in food and cosmetics.</p> B.R. Böger, A.L.B. Mori, M.C. Viegas, M.T. Benassi Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 03 mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Impact of plum processing on the quality and oxidative stability of cold-pressed kernel oil <p>Plum kernels of the “Čačanska rodna” variety, by-products from plum brandy production, were collected before and after fermentation and distillation, and used for cold-pressed oil production. Fatty acid and tocopherol contents were determined by capillary GC and HPLC, while the oxidation stability of the resulting cold-pressed oils was tested by the Rancimat method. The results showed that oleic fatty acid was dominant in the oil samples with a content of 56.6 to 61.8%, regardless of the plum kernels’ origin. The fermentation and distillation processes had a pronounced effect on the tocopherol content and oxidative stability of the resulting kernel oils. Tocopherol contents were 61.8 mg·100g<sup>-1</sup>, 87.4 mg·100g<sup>-1</sup>, 79.6 mg·100g<sup>-1</sup> of oil, while the induction periods were 38.7, 44.4 and 33.6 hours for samples before fermentation, after fermentation and distillation, respectively. Based on the results, it could be concluded that the fermentation process increased the content of tocopherols in kernel oil whereas the high temperature during the distillation process adversely affected the tocopherol content and oxidative stability of the obtained kernel oil.</p> B.B. Rabrenović, M.A. Demin, M.G. Basić, L.L. Pezo, D.M. Paunović, F.S. Sovtić Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 03 mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Nutritional, functional and microbiological characteristics of Jordanian fermented green Nabali Baladi olives <p>The quality characteristics of green olives produced by the traditional spontaneous fermentation method in Jordan have never been studied. We investigated the nutritional, functional, and microbiological characteristics of Jordanian fermented green Nabali Baladi olives (GNBFO). Proximate composition, fatty acids, and total polyphenols were determined by standard protocols. Cultivable microflora was monitored over 3 months of fermentation. Isolated microorganisms were identified by molecular sequencing and in vitro probiotic traits were tested. GNBFO contained fiber (3g⁄100g), total polyphenols (306mg⁄100g), oil (19.3g ⁄100g), and oleic acid (70%). Yeast strains (<em>Candida diddensiae</em> and <em>Candida naeodendra</em>) were predominant and showed acid (pH=2.5) and bile salt (0.1% and 0.3%) resistant and high adhesion ability (ca∼107CFU/ml) to intestinal cell lines; they were positive to catalase and negative to lipase and none possessed antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens. Lactic acid bacteria were not detected. In conclusion, the GNBFO have promising functional characteristics as they contain valuable nutrients, antioxidants, and yeast strains with potential probiotic traits.</p> M.N. Ahmad, G.F. Mehyar, G.A. Othman Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 24 feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Shelf-life of Moroccan prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) and argan (Argania spinosa) oils: a comparative study <p>Cactus seed oil is gaining considerable popularity in the cosmetic industry. To estimate cactus seed oil’ industrial as well as domestic ease of use, we investigated the oxidative stability of Moroccan cactus seed oil under accelerated aging conditions. In addition, we compared cactus seed oil stability to that of argan oil, a popular and well-established cosmetic oil, under the same conditions. Cactus seed oil is much more sensitive to oxidation than argan oil. Its shelf-life can be estimated to be no longer than 6 months at room temperature. Such instability means that the preparation process for cactus oil must be carried out with great care and cactus seed oil needs to be protected once extracted.</p> S. Gharby, D. Guillaume, I. Nounah, H. Harhar, A. Hajib, B. Matthäus, Z. Charrouf Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 24 feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Catalyst-free production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from macauba pulp oil <p>In this study, the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from macauba pulp oil and pressurized ethanol was investigated. The experiments were conducted without the addition of catalyst, at 20 MPa, to determine the effect of temperature (200 to 300 °C) and the oil to ethanol mass ratio (1:1 and 1:2) on the FAEE content and different residence times (10 to 45 min). The effect of the addition of <em>n</em>-hexane to the oil (20 wt%) as a co-solvent was also evaluated. The use of high temperatures (275 and 300 °C) resulted in high FAEE content (∼90%). Increasing the amount of ethanol in the reaction medium contributed to the formation of esters only at operating temperatures of 200 to 250 °C. It was also observed that with the addition of co-solvent (in the oil) it was possible to obtain high amounts of FAEE in a shorter reaction time. In addition, a low content of unreacted compounds (∼8.0%) and the conversion of ∼90 and 99% of the free fatty acids and triglycerides were observed, respectively.</p> C. Silva, T.A.S. Colonelli, C.P. Trentini, N. Postaue, D.A. Zempulski, L. Cardozo-Filho, E.A. Silva Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 03 mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Fatty acids, bioactive substances, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Ankyropetalum spp., a novel source of nervonic acid <p>Ankyropetalum extracts were obtained by using two different extractors (Soxhlet and ultrasonic bath). The phenol, flavonoid, DPPH, FRAP, and antimicrobial activity properties of the extracts were investigated. In addition, the fatty acid composition was determined in GC-MS. High values were found in <em>A. reuteri</em> and <em>A. gypsophiloides</em> for total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. DPPH and FRAP values were high in <em>A. arsusianum</em> and <em>A. gypsophiloides</em>, respectively. Better results were obtained by using methanol as the solvent and soxhlet as the extractor. The results showed that the extracts seem to be reasonably effective against test organisms including clinical isolates. The most promising results were obtained with all species USB extracts against <em>Candida parapsilosis</em>. It is notable that the levels of nervonic acid in <em>A. arsusianum</em> and <em>A. reuteri</em> reached 40%. Unlike other sources of nervonic acid in the world, the absence of erucic acid in plant oil increases the value of these plants.</p> N. Comlekcioglu, M. Kutlu Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 24 feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 New insights into the antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different food matrices <p>The anti-mold activity of 397 strains of lactic acid bacteria was evaluated using both the spot method in Petri plates and coculture in liquid medium. The study led to the selection of 34 strains isolated from table olives or olive brines, 15 strains from dairy products, and 10 strains from sourdoughs, all able to inhibit a strain of <em>Penicillium crustosum</em> and/or a strain of <em>Aspergillus</em> section <em>Nidulantes</em>, prevailing in two Calabrian olive brines. Seven representative strains were identified as <em>Lactobacillus pentosus</em> (four strains) and <em>Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis</em> (three strains) and are currently under testing for their antifungal activity during table olive fermentation. This research constitutes an initial contribution to the control of fungal growth and mycotoxin accumulation during table olive fermentation. The selected strains could be used as adjunct cultures in table olive fermentation, allowing for the biological control of table olive safety.</p> F. Panebianco, A. Caridi Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 03 mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100