The effect of commercial enzyme preparation-assisted maceration on the yield, quality, and bioactivity of essential oil from waste carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.)


  • K. B. Śmigielski Institute of Food Chemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Lodz University of Technology
  • M. Majewska Institute of Food Chemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Lodz University of Technology
  • A. Kunicka-Styczyńska Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Lodz University of Technology
  • R. Gruska Institute of Chemical Technology of Food, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Lodz University of Technology
  • Ł. Stańczyk Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Lodz University of Technology



Carrot, Enzyme preparation, Essential oil, Taguchi method


Eight enzyme preparations were screened with a view to maximizing the yield of carrot seed essential oil. Three of the eight enzyme preparations investigated, lipase from Mucor circinelloides, XPect® pectinase, and Esperase® protease, significantly influenced the amount of essential oil obtained, with Esperase® being the most effective. The Taguchi method was applied to optimize the processing conditions for the Esperase® protease. Under the optimum conditions, the essential oil yield increased by approximately 48%. The main constituent compounds in the oil are: carotol (OeA: 40.80%–OeB: 46.17%), daucol (OeA: 7.35%–OeB: 6.22%), sabinene (OeA: 5.12%–OeB: 6.13%), alpha-pinene (OeA: 4.24%–OeB: 5.11%) and geranyl acetate (OeA: 4.50%–OeB: 3.68%). As compared to the control sample, the essential oil obtained from enzyme-pretreated carrot seeds has the same biological activity against Bacillus subtilis and Candida sp., lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and higher activity against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum.


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How to Cite

Śmigielski KB, Majewska M, Kunicka-Styczyńska A, Gruska R, Stańczyk Ł. The effect of commercial enzyme preparation-assisted maceration on the yield, quality, and bioactivity of essential oil from waste carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.). grasasaceites [Internet]. 2014Dec.30 [cited 2023Jan.30];65(4):e047. Available from: