Grasas y Aceites, Vol 62, No 3 (2011)

Effect of the addition of garlic on the stability and sensory quality of olive paste

M. Schwartz
Departamento de Agroindustria. Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Universidad de Chile, Chile

V. Quitral
Departamento de Nutrición. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Chile, Chile

C. Daccarett
Departamento de Agroindustria. Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Universidad de Chile, Chile

R. Callejas
Departamento de Agroindustria. Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Universidad de Chile, Chile


The effect of garlic on the quality and stability of olive paste was evaluated. A control paste (Pc) was prepared based on a Sevillana olive variety, the other was identical to Pc with 0.5g/100g of garlic (Pa). Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory changes were monitored in both pastes at time zero and during storage up to 90 days at 4°C. Microbiological parameters remain within acceptable limits from the point of view of health. The addition of garlic to the olive paste leads to increased acidity (% lactic acid) and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in pH at 30 and 60 days of storage. The addition of garlic produces a lower increase in peroxide value after 90 days of storage. An instrumental color analysis indicates that Pa is brighter and has greater color intensity. Acceptability is similar between the pastes. The sensory quality indicates that Pa has better appearance, aroma, texture and flavor. Rancidity is less than perceived in Pa. The tastes sour, salty and bitter are lower in Pa. According to the results, the addition of garlic is recommended for olive paste and similar foods.


Acidity; Color; Garlic; Olives; Peroxide value; pH; Sensory analysis

Full Text:



Aguirrezábal MM, Mateo J, Domínguez MC, Zumalacárregui JM. 2000. The effect of paprika, garlic and salt on rancidity in dry sausages. Meat Sci. 54, 77-81. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00074-1

A.O.A.C, 1995. Official Methods of Análysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist International. Volumes I y II. 16th edition. Maryland, U.S.A.

A.O.C.S. 1993. Oficial Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’Society. 3th Edition. Champaign, Illinois.

Anniva C, Tsimidou MZ. 2009. On the quality control of “olive paste”, a specialty base on olives and olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 111, 328-336. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200800156

Anzaldúa-Morales A. 1994. La evaluación sensorial de los alimentos en la teoría y la práctica. Editorial Acribia, España.

Arroyo-López FN, Bautista-Gallego J, Durán-Quintana MC, Garrido-Fernandez A. 2008. Effects of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite and sodium chloride on freshness retention and microbial growth during the storage of Manzanilla-Aloreña cracked table olives. LWT – Food Sci. Tech. 41, 551-560.

Arroyo-López FN, Bautista-Gallego J, Segovia-Bravo KA, García-García P, Durán-Quintana MC, Romero C, Rodríguez-Gómez F, Garrido-Fernández A. 2009. Instability profile of fresh packed “seasoned” Manzanilla-Aloreña table olives. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 42, 1629-1639.

Arroyo López FN, Romero C, Duran MC, López A, García P, Garrido A. 2005. Kinetic study of the physicochemical and microbiological changes in “seasoned” olives during the shelf-life period. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 5285-5292. doi:10.1021/jf050501+ PMid:15969509

Banerjee S, Sood S, Dinda AK, Das T, Maulik SK. 2003. Chronic oral administration of raw garlic protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rat. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part C. 136, 377-386.

Borek C. 2001. Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract. J. Nutr. 131, 1010S-1015S. PMid:11238807

Boskou G, Salta FN, Chrysostomou S, Mylona A, Chiou A, Andrikopoulo NK. 2006. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic profile of table olives from the Greek market. Food Chem. 94, 558-564. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.005

Bozin B, Mimica-Dukic N, Samojlik I, Goran A, Igic R. 2008. Phenolics as antioxidants in garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae). Food Chem. 111, 925-929. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.071

Brat P, Georgè S, Bellamy A, Du Chaffaut L, Scalbert A, Mennen L, Arnault N, Amiot MJ. 2006. Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables. J. Nutr. 136, 2368-2373. PMid:16920856

Callejas R, Barraza J, Kania A. 2001. Evaluación durante la cosecha de los principales factores que provocan el rechazo de aceitunas. J. Olivícolas Nacionalles, 79-81

Cavagnaro PF, Camargo A, Galmarini CR, Simon Philipp W. 2007. Effect of cooking on garlic (Allium sativum L.) antiplatalet activity and thiosulfinates content. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 1280-1288. doi:10.1021/jf062587s PMid:17256959

Fleischauer AT, Poole C, Arab L. 2000. Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. Am. J. Cli. Nutr. 72, 1047-1052. PMid:11010950

Fujisawa H, Suma K, Origuchi K, Kumagai H, Seki T, Ariga T. 2008. Biological and chemical stability of garlicderived allicin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 4229-4235. doi:10.1021/jf8000907 PMid:18489116

García P, Brenes M, Romero C, Garrido A. 1999. Color and texture of acidified ripe olives in pouches. J. Food Sci. 64, 248-251. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1999.tb15875.x

Gibis M. 2007. Effect of oil marinades with garlic, onion and lemon juice on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried beef patties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 10240-10247. doi:10.1021/jf071720t PMid:17988088

Guynot ME, Ramos AJ, Sanchis V, Marín S. 2005. Study of benzoate, propionate, and sorbate salts as mould spoilage inhibitors on intermediate moisture bakery products of low pH (4.5–5.5). Intl. J. Food Microbiol. 101, 161-168. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.11.003 PMid:15862878

Hand DB, Robinson WB, Wishnetsky T, Ransford JR. 1953. Color measurement: Application to food quality grades. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1, 1209-1212. doi:10.1021/jf60020a006

Hracek VM, Gliemmo MF, Campos CA. 2010. Effect of steviosides and system composition on stability and antimicrobial action of sorbates in acidified model aqueous systems . Food Res. Int. 43, 2171-2175. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2010.07.031

Hughes BG Lawson LD. 1991. Antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum (garlic), Allium ampeloprasum (elephant garlic) and Allium cepa (onion), garlic compounds and commercial garlic supplement products. Phytother. Res. 5, 154-158. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650050403

Janoszka B. 2010. 7-Ketocholesterol and 7-hydroxycholesterol in pork meat and its gravy thermally treated without additives and in the presence of onion and garlic. Meat Sci. 86, 976-984. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.08.003 PMid:20822860

Liu C-T, Hse H, Lii C-K, Chen P-S, Sheen L-Y. 2005. Effects of garlic oil and diallyl trisulfide on glycemic control in diabetic rats. Eur. J. Pharm. 516, 165-173. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.04.031 PMid:15936752

Lozano RD. 1978. El color y su medición. Editorial Americalee. Buenos Aires. Argentina

Malheiro RA, Casal S, Bento A, Pereira JA. 2011. Cultivar effect on the phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of stoned table olives. Food Chem Toxicol, 49, 450-457. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.11.023 PMid:21108983

Melgosa M, Pérez MM, Yebra A, Huertas R, Hita E. 2001. Algunas reflexiones y recientes recomendaciones internacionales sobre evaluación de diferencias de color. Optica Pura y Aplicada. 34, 1-10.

Mihyar GF, Yamani MI, Al-Sa’ed AK. 1997. Resistance of Yeast Flora of Labaneh to Potassium Sorbate and Sodium Benzoate. J. Dairy Sci. 80, 2304-2309. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76180-0

Miller FA, Ramos B, Gil MM, Brandão TRS, Teixeira P, Silva C. 2009. Influence of pH, type of acid and recovery media on the thermal inactivation of Listeria innocua. Int J. Food Microbiol. 133, 121-128. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.05.007 PMid:19481827

Minguez-Mosquera MI, Garrido-Fernandez J, Gandul-Rojas B. 1989. Pigments changes in olives during fermentation and brine storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37, 8-11. doi:10.1021/jf00085a002

Ministerio de Salud. 2010. Reglamento Sanitario de los Alimentos. DTO. N.º 977/96. Actualizado 2010. Santiago. Chile.

Navas PB, Carrasqueño-Durán A, Flores I. 2006. Effect of black tea, garlic and onion on corn oil stability and fatty acid composition Ander accelerated oxidation. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 41, 243-247. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01056.x

NCh 2734.Of2002. Determinación de hongos y levaduras - Técnica de recuento en placa. Instituto Nacional de Normalización. Santiago, Chile.

NCh 2659.of2002. Determinación de microorganismos aerobios mesófilos - Técnica de recuento en placa a 35°C. Instituto Nacional de Normalización. Santiago, Chile.

NCh 2676.of2002 . Determinación de Enterobacteriaceae sin resucitación - Técnica NMP y técnica de recuento en placa. Instituto Nacional de Normalización. Santiago, Chile.

Ngo SNT, Williams DB, Cobiac L, Head RJ. 2007. Does garlic reduce risk of colorectal cancer? A systematic review. J. Nutr. 137, 2264-2269. PMid:17885009

Omar SH, Al-Wabel NA. 2010. Organosulfur compounds and possible mechanism of garlic in cancer. Saudi Pharm. J. 18, 51-58. doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2009.12.007

Papadopoulou C, Soulti K, Roussis IG. 2005. Potential antimicrobial activity of red and white wine phenolic extracts against strains of Staphilococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Food Tech. Biotech. 43, 41-46.

Papadopoulou D, Roussis IG. 2008. Inhibition of corn oil oxidation by N-acetyl-cysteine and glutathione. Food Chem. 109, 624-629. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.082

Pereira JA, Pereira APG, Ferreira I, Valentão P, Andrade P, Seabra R, Estevinho L, Bento A. 2006. Table olives from Portugal: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 8425-8431. doi:10.1021/jf061769j PMid:17061816

Pokorny J, Yanishlieva N, Gordon M. 2005. Antioxidantes de los Alimentos. Editorial Acribia, S.A. Zaragoza. España.

Queiroz YS, Ishimoto EY, Bastos D, Torres E. 2009. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and ready-to-eat garlic products: In vitro antioxidant activity. Food Chem. 115, 371-374. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.105

Quevedo R, Díaz O, Caqueo A, Ronceros B, Aguilera JM. 2009. Quantification of enzymatic browning kinetics in pear slices using non-homogenous L* color information from digital images. LWT - Food Sci. Tech. 42, 1367-1373.

Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP. 2010. Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. Maturitas. 67, 144-150. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.06.001 PMid:20594781

Rodríguez G, Lama A, Jaramillo S, Fuentes-Alventosa JM, Guillén R, Jiménez-Arujo A, Rodríguez-Arcos R, Fernandez-Bolaños J. 2009. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG): An important phenolic compound present in natural table olives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 6298-6304. doi:10.1021/jf803512r PMid:19545148

Romeo FV, De Luca S, Piscopo A, Perri E, Poiana M. 2009. Effects of post-fermentation processing on the stabilisation of naturally fermented green table olives (cv Nocellara etnea). Food Chem. 116, 873-878. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.037

Sallam KI, Ishioroshi M, Samejima K. 2004. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 37, 849-855. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2004.04.001 PMid:17330154    PMCid:1805705

Schwartz M, Quitral V, Daccarett C, Callejas J. 2009. Desarrollo de pasta untable de aceituna variedad Sevillana. Grasas y Aceites. 60, 451-457.

Segovia-Bravo K, Jarén-Galán M, García-García P, Garrido-Fernandez A. 2009. Browning reactions in olives: Mechanism and polyphenols involved. Food Chem. 114, 1380-1385. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.017

Sener G, Sakarcan A, Ye≈n BÇ. 2007. Role of garlic in the prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 51, 1345-1352. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700078

Soni MG, Burdock GA, Christian MS, Bitler CM, Crea R. 2006. Safety assessment of aqueous olive pulp extract as an antioxidant ao antimicrobial agent in foods. Food Chem. Toxicol. 44, 903-915. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.01.008 PMid:16530907

Tajkarimi MM, Ibrahim SA, Cliver DO. 2010. Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Review Article. Food Control, 21, 1199-1218. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.02.003

Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD. 2004. Organosulfur compounds from alliaceae in the prevention of human pathologies. Biomed. Pharmacother. 58, 183-193. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2004.01.004

Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Bordia T, Ali M. 2006. Including garlic in the diet may help lower blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. J. Nutr. 136, 800S-802S. PMid:16484567

USDA. 2007. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of selected foods.

Wittig E. 2001. Evaluación Sensorial. Una metodología actual para tecnología de alimentos. Edición Digital reproducida con autorización del autor. En: [].

Yin M, Cheng W. 2003. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of four garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in ground beef. Meat Sci. 63, 23-28. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00047-5

Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support