Grasas y Aceites, Vol 66, No 4 (2015)

Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

C. Jakobušić Brala, D. Benčić, Z. Šindrak, M. Barbarić, S. Uršić



Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.


Autochthonous Croatian olive varieties; Extra virgin olive oil; Labeling; Phenolic compounds

Full Text:



Anter J, Tasset I, Demyda-Peyrás S, Ranchal I, Moreno-Millán M, Romero-Jimenez M, Muntané J, Luque de Castro MD, Muñoz-Serrano A, Alonso-Moraga Á. 2014. Evaluation of potential antigenotoxic, cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of the olive oil by-product "alperujo", hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and verbascoside. Mutat Res-Gen Tox En 772, 25–33. PMid:25308544

Bajoub A, Carrasco-Pancorbo A, Ajal EA, Ouazzani N, Fernández-Gutiérrez A. 2015. Potential of LC–MS phenolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis as an approach for the determination of the geographical origin of north Moroccan virgin olive oils. Food Chem. 166, 292–300. PMid:25053059

Ballus CA, Quirantes-Pine R, Bakhouche A, de Oliveira da Silva LF, de Oliveira AF, Coutinho EF, da Croce DM, Segura-Carretero A, Godoy HT. 2015. Profile of phenolic compounds of Brazilian virgin olive oils by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation timeof- flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-TOF-MS). Food Chem. 170, 366–377. PMid:25306359

Cabrerizo S, De La Cruz JP, López-Villodres JA, Muñoz-Marín J, Guerrero A, Reyes JJ, Labajos MT, González-Correa JA. 2013. Role of the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in the neuroprotective effects of hydroxytyrosol in rat brain slices subjected to hypoxia reoxygenation. J. Nutr. Biochem. 24, 2152–2157. PMid:24231104

Cárdeno A, Sánchez-Hidalgo M, Aparicio-Soto M, Sánchez-Fidalgo S, Alarcón de la Lastra C. 2014. Extra virgin olive oil polyphenolic extracts downregulate inflammatory responses in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages suppressing NF£eB and MAPK signalling pathways. Food Funct. 5, 1270–1277. PMid:24740524

Cicerale S, Lucas L, Keast R. 2012. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic activities in extra virgin olive oil. Curr. Opin. Biotech. 23, 129–135. PMid:22000808

Clodoveo ML, Camposeo S, de Gennaro B, Pascuzzi S, Roselli L. 2014. In the ancient world, virgin olive oil was called "liquid gold" by Homer and "the great healer" by Hippocrates. Why has this mythic image been forgotten? Food Res. Int. 62, 1062–1068.

da Cunha FM, Duma D, Assreuy J, Buzzi FC, Niero R, Campos MM, Calixto J. 2004. Caffeic Acid Derivatives: In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-inflammatory Properties. Free Radical Res. 38, 1241–1253. PMid:15621702

El Riachy M, Priego-Capote F, Rallo L, Luque de Castro MD, León L. 2012. Phenolic profile of virgin olive oil from advanced breeding selections. Span J. Agric. Res. 10, 443–453.

El Riachy M, Priego-Capote F, León L, Luque de Castro MD, Rallo L. 2012. Virgin olive oil phenolic profile and variability in progenies from olive crosses. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92, 2524–2533. PMid:22473751

El-Seedi HR, El-Said A, Khalifa S, Goransson U, Bohlin L, Borg-Karlson AK, Verpoorte R. 2012. Biosynthesis, Natural Sources, Dietary Intake, Pharmacokinetic Properties, and Biological Activities of Hydroxycinnamic Acids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60, 10877–10895. PMid:22931195

Espín JC, Soler-Rivas C, Cantos E, Tomás-Barberán FA, Wichers HJ. 2001. Synthesis of the Antioxidant Hydroxytyrosol Using Tyrosinase as Biocatalyst. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 1187–1193. PMid:11312833

Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas MI, Corella D, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Basora J, Muñoz MA, Sorlí JV, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA. 2013. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet. New Engl. J. Med. 368, 1279–1290. PMid:23432189

European Commission. 2009. Commission Regulation (EC) No 182/2009 of 6 March 2009. amending Regulation (EC) No. 1019/2002 on marketing standards for olive oil. Off. J. Eur. Union L 63, 6–8.

European Commission. 2012. Commission Regulation (EU) No 432/2012 of 16 May 2012. establishing a list of permitted health claims made on foods, other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children`s development and health. Off. J. Eur. Union L 136, 1–40.

Fung TT, Rexrode KM, Mantzoros CS, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. 2009. Mediterranean Diet and Incidence of and Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in Women. Circulation 119, 1093–1100. PMid:19221219 PMCid:PMC2724471

García-Martínez O, Mazzaglia G, Sánchez-Ortiz A, Oca-a-Peinado FM, Rivas A. 2014. Phenolic content of Sicilian virgin olive oils and their effect on MG-63 human osteoblastic cell proliferation. Grasas Aceites 65, e032.

García-Martínez O, Rivas A, Ramos-Torrecillas J, De Luna- Bertos E, Ruiz C. 2014. The effect of olive oil on osteoporosis prevention. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 65, 834–840. PMid:24975408

Giordano E, Davalos A, Nicod N, Visioli F. 2014. Hydroxytyrosol attenuates tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in human hepatocarcinoma cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 58, 954–962. PMid:24347345

Hashim YZY, Rowland IR, McGlynn H, Servili M, Selvaggini R, Taticchi A, Esposto S, Montedoro G, Kaisalo L, Wähälä K, Gill CIR. 2008. Inhibitory effects of olive oil phenolics on invasion in human colon adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Int. J. Cancer 122, 495–500. PMid:17943720

Hashim YZHY, Worthington J, Allsopp P, Ternan NG, Brown EM, McCann MJ, Rowland IR, Esposto S, Servili M, Gill CIR. 2014. Virgin olive oil phenolics extract inhibit invasion of HT115 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Food Funct. 5, 1513–1519. PMid:24836598

Hrncirik K, Fritsche S. 2004. Comparability and reliability of different techniques for the determination of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. 106, 540–549.

Ilyasoglu H, Ozcelik B, Van Hoed V, Verhe R. 2010. Characterization of Aegean Olive Oils by Their Minor Compounds. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87, 627–636.

Karaosmanoglu H, Soyer F, Ozen B, Tokatli F. 2010. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Turkish Extra Virgin Olive Oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 8238–8245. PMid:20604567

Keys A. 1970. Coronary Heart Disease in 7 Countries. Circulation 41, I86–195.

Lamy S, Ouanouki A, Béliveau R, Desrosiers RR. 2014. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation. Exp. Cell Res. 322, 89–98. PMid:24326154

Lipworth L, Martinez ME, Angell J, Hsieh CC, Trichopoulos D. 1997. Olive oil and Human Cancer: An Assessment of the Evidence. Prev. Med. 26, 181–190. PMid:9085386

López-Miranda J, Pérez-Jiménez F, Ros E, De Caterina R, Badimón L, Covas MI, Escrich E, Ordovás JM, Soriguer F, Abiá R, Alarcón de la Lastra C, Battino M, Corella D, Chamorro-Quirós J, Delgado-Lista J, Giugliano D, Esposito K, Estruch R, Fernandez-Real JM, Gaforio JJ, La Vecchia C, Lairon D, López-Segura F, Mata P, Menéndez JA, Muriana FJ, Osada J, Panagiotakos DB, Paniagua JA, Pérez-Martinez P, Perona J, Peinado MA, Pineda-Priego M, Poulsen HE, Quiles JL, Ramírez-Tortosa MC, Ruano J, Serra-Majem L, Solá R, Solanas M, Solfrizzi V, de la Torre-Fornell R, Trichopoulou A, Uceda M, Villalba-Montoro JM, Villar-

Lou Z, Wang H, Rao S, Sun J, Ma C, Li J. 2012. p-Coumaric acid kills bacteria through dual damage mechanisms. Food Control 25, 550–554.

Lu J, Huang G, Wang Z, Zhuang S, Xu L, Song B, Xiong Y, Guan S. 2013. Tyrosol exhibits negative regulatory effects on LPS response and endotoxemia. Food Chem. Toxicol. 62, 172–178. PMid:23994089

Martínez-González MA, Fernández-Jarne E, Serrano-Martínez M, Marti A, Martinez JA, Martín-Moreno JM. 2002. Mediterranean diet and reduction in the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction: an operational healthy dietary score. Eur. J. Nutr. 41, 153–160. PMid:12242583

Montedoro G, Servili M, Baldioli M, Miniati E. 1992. Simple and hydrolyzable phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. 1. Their extraction, separation, and quantitative and semiquantitative evaluation by HPLC. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 1571–1576.

Nakbi A, Dabbou S, Champion S, Fouchier F, Mehri S, Attia N, Leger C, Hammami M. 2011. Modulation of the superoxide anion production and MMP-9 expression in PMA stimulated THP-1 cells by olive oil minor components: Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. Food Res. Int. 44, 575–581.

Nichenametla SN, Taruscio TG, Barney DL, Exon JH. 2006. A review of the effects and mechanisms of polyphenolics in cancer. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 46, 161–183. PMid:16431408

Oliveras-López MJ, Berná G, Jurado-Ruiz E, López-García de la Serrana H, Martín F. 2014. Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds has beneficial antioxidant effects in healthy human adults. J. Funct. Foods 10, 475–484.

Owen RW, Mier W, Giacosa A, Hull WE, Spiegelhalder B, Bartsch H. 2000. Phenolic compounds and squalene in olive oils: the concentration and antioxidant potential of total phenols, simple phenols, secoiridoids, lignans and squalene. Food Chem. Toxicol. 38, 647–659.

Paiva-Martins F, Silva A, Almeida V, Carvalheira M, Serra C, Rodrígues-Borges JE, Fernandes J, Belo L, Santos-Silva A. 2013. Protective Activity of Hydroxytyrosol Metabolites on Erythrocyte Oxidative-Induced Hemolysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61, 6636–6642. PMid:23777263

Pragasam SJ, Murunikkara V, Sabina EP, Rasool M. 2013. Ameliorative effect of p-coumaric acid, a common dietary phenol, on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Rheumatol. Int. 33, 325–334. PMid:22447332

Ramos-Escudero F, Teresa Morales M, Asuero AG. 2015. Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oils: Relationship Between Phenolic Compounds- Antioxidant Capacities. Int. J. Food Prop. 18, 348–358.

Reboredo-Rodríguez P, González-Barreiro C, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J. 2012. Dynamic headspace/GC–MS to control the aroma fingerprint of extra-virgin olive oil from the same and different olive varieties. Food Control 25, 684–695.

Reboredo-Rodríguez P, González-Barreiro C, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J. 2013. Concentrations of Aroma Compounds and Odor Activity Values of Odorant Series in Different Olive Cultivars and Their Oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61, 5252–5259. PMid:23659432

Reboredo-Rodríguez P, González-Barreiro C, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J. 2013. Aroma biogenesis and distribution between olive pulps and seeds with identification of aroma trends among cultivars. Food Chem. 141, 637–643. PMid:23768404

Reboredo-Rodríguez P, González-Barreiro C, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J. 2013. Effects of Sedimentation Plus Racking Process in the Extra Virgin Olive Oil Aroma Fingerprint Obtained by DHS–TD/GC–MS. Food Bioprocess. Tech. 6, 1290–1301.

Reboredo-Rodríguez P, González-Barreiro C, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J. 2014. Improvements in the malaxation process to enhance the aroma quality of extra virgin olive oils. Food Chem. 158, 534–545. PMid:24731380

Reboredo-Rodríguez P, González-Barreiro C, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J. 2014. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in northwestern Spain. Food Chem. 164, 418–426. PMid:24996353

Romero MP, Tovar MJ, Ramo T, Motilva MJ. 2003. Effect of crop season on the composition of virgin olive oil with protected designation of origin "Les Garrigues." J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80, 423–430.

Roy AJ, Prince PSM. 2013. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 60, 348–354. PMid:23669407

Scoditti E, Nestola A, Massaro M, Calabriso N, Storelli C, De Caterina R, Carluccio MA. 2014. Hydroxytyrosol suppresses MMP-9 and COX-2 activity and expression in activated human monocytes via PKC£ and PKC£]1 inhibition. Atherosclerosis 232, 17–24. PMid:24401212

Sofi F, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A. 2010. Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis1. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 92, 1189–1196. PMid:20810976

Sarolic´ M, Gugic´ M, Tuberoso C, Jerkovic I, ·uste M, Marijanovic Z, Ku‰ P. 2014. Volatile Profile, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Virgin Olive Oils from Croatian Autochthonous Varieties Ma‰njacˇa and Krvavica in Comparison with Italian Variety Leccino. Molecules 19, 881–895.

Sindrak Z, Bencic ., Voca S, Berberic A. 2007. Total phenols in varietal olive oils from Istria. Pomologia Croatica 13, 17–29.

Tura D, Gigliotti C, Pedò S, Failla O, Bassi D, Serraiocco A. 2007. Influence of cultivar and site of cultivation on levels of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in virgin olive oils (Olea Europea L.) and correlations with oxidative stability. Sci. Hortic-Amsterdam 112, 108–119.

Tura D, Failla O, Bassi D, Pedo S, Serraiocco A. 2009. Environmental and seasonal influence on virgin olive (Olea europaea L.) oil volatiles in northern Italy. Sci Hortic-Amsterdam 122, 385–392.

Valls RM, Farras M, Suarez M, Fernandez-Castillejo S, Fito M, Konstantinidou V, Fuentes F, Lopez-Miranda J, Giralt M, Covas MI, Motilva MJ, Sola R. 2015. Effects of functional olive oil enriched with its own phenolic compounds on endothelial function in hypertensive patients. A randomised controlled trial. Food Chem. 167, 30–35. PMid:25148955

Vauzour D, Corona G, Spencer JPE. 2010. Caffeic acid, tyrosol and p-coumaric acid are potent inhibitors of 5-S-cysteinyldopamine induced neurotoxicity. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 501, 106–111. PMid:20361927

Yoon SA, Kang SI, Shin HS, Kang SW, Kim JH, Ko HC, Kim SJ. 2013. p-Coumaric acid modulates glucose and lipid metabolism via AMP-activated protein kinase in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 432, 553–557. PMid:23485470

Copyright (c) 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Spain (CC-by).

Contact us

Technical support