Grasas y Aceites, Vol 67, No 3 (2016)

Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.1017153

B. Parczewska-Plesnar
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland

R. Brzozowski
Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Poland

H. Gwardiak
Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Poland

E. Białecka-Florjańczyk
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland

Z. Bujnowski
Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Poland

Abstract


In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 oC under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt%) than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%). Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3%) in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%), while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%). These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable.

Keywords


Entrainer; Extraction; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Supercritical CO2; Wheat germ oil

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


American Oil Chemists' Society 1989. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 4th ed. Champaign, IL.

Bujnowski Z, Brzozowski R, Szarlik S, Cybulski J, Jezierska- Zi?ba M, K?kol B, D?browski Z, Go? A. 2011. Supercritical extraction of plant material with carbon oxide. Scaling up from laboratory to ? technical scale. Chemik 65, 849–858.

Dunford NT, Irmak S, Jonnala R. 2010. Pressurised solvent extraction of policosanol from wheat straw, germ and bran. Food Chem. 119, 1246–1249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.07.039

Durante M, Lenucci MS, Rescio L, Mita G, Caretto S. 2012. Durum wheat by-products as natural sources of valuable nutrients. Phytochem. Rev. 11, 255–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11101-012-9232-x

Eisenmenger M, Dunford NT. 2008. Bioactive Components of Commercial and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processed Wheat Germ Oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 55–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1163-0

Ge Y, Yan H, Hui B, Ni Y, Wang S, Cai T. 2002: Extraction of Natural Vitamin E from Wheat Germ by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 685–689. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf010615v PMid:11829628

Gelmez N, Kıncal NS, Yener ME. 2009. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from roasted wheat germ based on yield, total phenolic and tocopherol contents, and antioxidant activities of the extracts. J. Supercrit. Fluids 48, 217–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2008.11.002

Gomez AM, de la Ossa EM. 2000. Quality of Wheat Germ Oil Extracted by Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77, 969–974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-000-0153-y

Jiang ST, Niu LY. 2011. Optimization and evaluation of wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical CO2. Grasas Aceites 62, 181–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.078710

Jozwiak A, Brzozowski R, Bujnowski Z, Chojnacki T, Swiezewska E. 2013. Application of supercritical CO2 for extraction of polyisoprenoid alcohols and their esters from plant tissues. J. Lipid Res. 54, 2023–2028. http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.D038794 PMid:23673976 PMCid:PMC3679403

King JW, Mohamed A, Taylor SL, Mebrahtu T, Paul C. 2001. Supercritical fluid extraction of Vernoniagalamensisseeds. Ind. Crops Prod. 14, 241–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6690(01)00089-9

Li H, Song Ch, Huiming ZH, Wang N, Cao D. 2011. Optimization of the Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil Using Response Surface Methodology. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88, 809–817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1731-6

Özcan MM, Rosa A, Dessı MA, Marongıu B, Pıras A, AL-Juhaimi F.Y.I. 2013. Quality of Wheat Germ Oil Obtained by Cold Pressing and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction. Czech J. Food Sci. 31, 236–240.

Panfili G, Cinquanta L, Fratianni A, Cubadda R. 2003. Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil by Supercritical CO2: Oil and Defatted Cake Characterization. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80, 157–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-003-0669-1

Piras A, Rosa A, Falconieri D, Porcedda S, Dessì MA, Marongiu B. 2009. Extraction of Oil from Wheat Germ by Supercritical CO2. Molecules 14, 2573–2581. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules14072573 PMid:19633624

Salgın U. 2007. Extraction of jojoba seed oil using supercritical CO2 + ethanol mixture in green and high-tech separation process. J. Supercrit. Fluids 39, 330–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2006.03.013

Salgın U, Korkmaz H. 2011. A green separation process for recovery of healthy oil from pumpkin seed. J. Supercrit. Fluids 58, 239–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2011.06.002

Wang T, Johnson L. 2001. Refining High-Free Fatty Acid Wheat Germ Oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78, 71–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-001-0222-2

Xie M, Dunford NT, Goad C. 2011. Enzymatic Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88, 2015–21 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-011-1861-5




Copyright (c) 2016 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es