Grasas y Aceites, Vol 68, No 2 (2017)

Preparation of stable tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions by a low energy method with non-ionic surfactants

M. Kanlayavattanakul
School of Cosmetic Science, Mae Fah Luang University - Phytocosmetics and Cosmeceuticals Research Group, Thailand

N. Lourith
School of Cosmetic Science, Mae Fah Luang University - Phytocosmetics and Cosmeceuticals Research Group, Thailand


Tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions were prepared. Non-ionic surfactants containing Tween 80 and Span 80 (1:1, w/w) were mixed with propanol (3-9:1, w/w) to give Smix, which was thereafter mixed with tea seed oil. The mixture was titrated with water at 150 rpm to give clear or bluish and bluish-white emulsions. Twelve nano-particle emulsions with 64.64 to 72.73% Smix, 16.66 to 27.27% oil and 9.09 to 16.67% water with particle sizes between 207.00 to 430.10 nm, PDI of 0 to 0.4, ζ-potential of -42.00 to -49.63 mV, pH of 7.04 to 7.32 and 151.33 to 241.93 cps, were stable following an accelerated stability test and long term storage at room temperature and 4 and 45 ºC for 90 days, although one system (16.66% oil and 66.67% Smix) was separated. This nano-particle emulsion formulation is concise and feasible for an industrial development of topical products containing tea seed oil.


Camellia oleifera; Emulsion; Formulation; Self-emulsifying; Stability; Tea seed oil

Full Text:



Abbsasi S, Radi M. 2016. Food grade microemulsion systems: canolaoil/lecithin:n-propanol/water. Food Chem. 194, 972- 979. PMid:26471642

Cheng Y-T, Wu S-L, Ho C-Y, Huang S-M, Cheng C-L, Yen G-C. 2014. Beneficial effects of Camellia oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on letoprofen-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damage through upregulation of HO-1 and VEGF. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62, 642-650. PMid:24377395

Garti N, Yaghmur A, Leser ME, Clement V, Watzke HJ. 2001. Improved oil solubilization in oil/water food grade microemulsions in the presence of polyols and ethanol. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 2552-2562. PMid:11368635

Kanlayavattanakul M, Lourith N. 2011. Therapeutic agents and herbs in topical application for acne treatment. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 33, 289-297. PMid:21401650

Lee C-P, Yen G-C. 2006. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 779-784. PMid:16448182

Lee C-P, Shih P-H, Hsu C-L, Yen G-C. 2007. Hepatoprotection of tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) against CCl4- induced oxidative damage in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 888-895. PMid:17188414

Li Y, Zheng J, Xiao H, McClements DJ. 2012. Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds: influence of formulation parameters on polymethoxyflavone crystallization. Food Hydrocoll. 27, 517- 528. PMid:22685367 PMCid:PMC3367464

Lourith N, Kanlayavattanakul M, Ruktanonchai U. 2016. Formulation and stability of Moringa oleifera oil microemulsion. Soft Matter. 14, 64-71.

McClements DJ. 2012. Nanoemulsions versus microemulsions: terminology, differences, and similarities. Soft Matter. 8, 1719-1729.

Miura D, Kida Y, Nojima H. 2007. Camellia oil and its distillate fractions effectively inhibit the spontaneous metastasis of mouse melanoma BL6 cells. FEBS Lett. 581, 2541-2548. PMid:17499720

Nazarzadeh E, Anthonypillai T, Sajjadi S. 2013. On the growth mechanisms of nanoemulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 397, 154-162. PMid:23452515

Odile A-S, L'alloret F, Simonnet J-T. 2001. Nanoemulsion containing nonionic polymers. EP Patent 20010401832.

Polychniatou V, Tzia C. 2014. Study of formulation and stability of co-surfactant free water-in-olive oil nano- and submicron emulsions with food grade non-ionic surfactants. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 91, 79-88.

Quemin E. 2001. Translucent nanoemulsion, production method, and uses thereof in the cosmetic, dermatological and/or ophthalmological fields. EP Patent 20050013409.

Rao J, McClements DJ. 2012. Lemon oil solubilization in mixed surfactant solutions: rationalizing microemulsion & nanoemulsion formation. Food Hydrocoll. 26, 268-276.

Roohinejad S, Oey I, Wen J, Lee SJ, Everett DW, Burritt DJ. 2015. Formulation of oil-in-water ?-carotene microemulsions: effects of oil type and fatty acid chain length. Food Chem. 174, 270-278. PMid:25529680

Sahari MA, Ataii D, Hamedi M. 2004. Characteristics of tea seed oil in comparison with sunflower and olive oils and its effect as a natural antioxidant. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 81, 585-588.

Saraf A. 2010. Applications of novel drug delivery system for herbal formulations. Fitoterapia 81, 680-689. PMid:20471457

Shafiq S, Shakeel F, Talegaonkar S, Ahmad FJ, Khar RK, Ali M. 2007. Development and bioavailability assessment of ramipril nanoemulsion formulation. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 66, 227- 243. PMid:17127045

Solans C, Solé I. 2012. Nano-emulsions: formation by low-energy methods. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 17, 346-354.

Su MH, Shih MC, Lin K-H. 2014. Chemical composition of seed oils in native Taiwanese Camellia species. Food Chem. 156, 369-373. PMid:24629982

Tang B, Cheng G, Gu J, Xu CH. 2008. Development of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: preparation techniques and dosage forms. Drug Discov. Today 13, 606-612. PMid:18598917

Wang L, Dong J, Chen J, Eastoe J, Li X. 2009. Design and optimization of a new self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 330, 443-448. PMid:19038395

Zhao Y, Wang C, Chow AHL, Ren K, Gong T, Zhang Z, Zheng Y. 2010. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDSS) for oral delivery of Zedoary essential oil: formulation and bioavailability studies. Int. J. Pharm. 383, 170-177. PMid:19732813

Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support