Grasas y Aceites, Vol 68, No 4 (2017)

Optimization of methanol crystallization for highly efficient separation of palmitic acid from palm fatty acid mixture using response surface methodology


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0552171

A. A.W. Japir
School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan - Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Thamar University, Malaysia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8261-7981

J. Salimon
School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan, Malaysia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1577-8478

D. Derawi
School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan, Malaysia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4967-8122

B. H. Yahaya
Kluster Perubatan Regeneratif, Institut Perubatan dan Pergigian Termaju, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3295-9676

M. S.M. Jamil
School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan, Malaysia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0745-0787

M. R. Yusop
School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan -, Malaysia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8843-8677

Abstract


The objective of the current study was to develop parameters for the separation of palmitic acid (PA) from a crude palm oil saturated fatty acid (SFAs) mixture by using the methanol crystallization method. The conditions of methanol crystallization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) with the D-optimal design. The procedure of developing the solvent crystallization method was based on various different parameters. The fatty acid composition was carried out using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) as fatty acid methyl esters. The highest percentage of SFAs was more than 96% with the percentage yield of 87.5% under the optimal conditions of fatty acids-to-methanol ratio of 1: 20 (w/v), the crystallization temperature of -15 °C, and the crystallization time of 24 hours, respectively. The composition of separated SFAs in the solid fraction contains 96.7% of palmitic acid (C16:0) as a dominant component and 3.3% of stearic acid (C18:0). The results showed that utilizing methanol as a crystallization solvent is recommended because of its high efficiency, low cost, stability, availability, comparative ease of recovery and its ability to form needle-like crystals which have good filtering and washing characteristics.

Keywords


Biodiesel; D-optimal design; Methanol crystallization; Palmitic acid; Response surface methodology (RSM)

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