Effect of acidification and salt concentration on two black brined olives from Sicily (cv moresca and giarraffa)
Keywords:Acidity, Brining, Naturally mature olives, Microbial growth, Salt
In the present work the effects of different brining treatments on mature table olives during natural fermentation were evaluated. The considered olive cultivars are typical of Sicily: Moresca and Giarraffa. They were harvested at pigmented state. The carpological data revealed their good quality as table olives. Natural fermentation was performed with or without acidification up to pH 4, and at 8% and 15% salt concentrations. The physical, chemical and microbiological changes in olives and brines were monitored throughout the processing period. The acidification affected and selected the microbial population and maintained the low pH necessary for the hygienic safety of the product. In fact, in Moresca brines,the lactic acid bacteria totally disappeared after 60 days of fermentation while in Giarraffa they maintained their presence in the brines up to 180 days with a value between 104 UFC/mL and 106 UFC/mL, depending on the salt concentration. The microbial population was also affected by the polyphenol content, which was different between the cultivars. The color of olive fruits was greatly influenced by acidification and less by salt concentration. The addition of salt showed a different influence on the studied cultivars, in fact only the chemical analyses of Giarraffa showed a significant difference between the two levels of salt concentration.
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