Effect of acidification and salt concentration on two black brined olives from Sicily (cv moresca and giarraffa)


  • Flora V. Romeo Department of Biotechnologies for Agricultural Food and Environmental Monitoring, (BIOMAA) Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria
  • Amalia Piscopo Department of Biotechnologies for Agricultural Food and Environmental Monitoring, (BIOMAA). Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria.
  • Marco Poiana Department of Biotechnologies for Agricultural Food and Environmental Monitoring, (BIOMAA). Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria.




Acidity, Brining, Naturally mature olives, Microbial growth, Salt


In the present work the effects of different brining treatments on mature table olives during natural fermentation were evaluated. The considered olive cultivars are typical of Sicily: Moresca and Giarraffa. They were harvested at pigmented state. The carpological data revealed their good quality as table olives. Natural fermentation was performed with or without acidification up to pH 4, and at 8% and 15% salt concentrations. The physical, chemical and microbiological changes in olives and brines were monitored throughout the processing period. The acidification affected and selected the microbial population and maintained the low pH necessary for the hygienic safety of the product. In fact, in Moresca brines,the lactic acid bacteria totally disappeared after 60 days of fermentation while in Giarraffa they maintained their presence in the brines up to 180 days with a value between 104 UFC/mL and 106 UFC/mL, depending on the salt concentration. The microbial population was also affected by the polyphenol content, which was different between the cultivars. The color of olive fruits was greatly influenced by acidification and less by salt concentration. The addition of salt showed a different influence on the studied cultivars, in fact only the chemical analyses of Giarraffa showed a significant difference between the two levels of salt concentration.


Download data is not yet available.


Amiot MJ, Fleuriette A, Macheix JJ. 1986. Importance and Evolution of Phenolic Compounds in Olive during growth and maturation. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 3, 823-826. doi:10.1021/jf00071a014

AOAC 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington VA.

Borcakli M, Özay G, Alperden I, Özsan E, Erdek Y. 1993. Changes in chemical and microbiological composition of two varieties of olive during fermentation. Grasas y Aceites 44, 253-258.

Brenes Balbuena M, García García P, Duran Quintana MC, Garrido Fernández A. 1993. Concentration of phenolic compounds change in storage brines of ripe olives. J. Food Sci. 58, 347-350. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb04272.x

Brenes M, de Castro A. 1998. Transformation of Oleuropein and its Hydrolysis products during Spanish-style green olive processing. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77, 353-358. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199807)77:3<353::AID-JSFA50>3.0.CO;2-G

Brighigna A. 1998. Valutazione commerciale delle olive da tavola, in Brighigna A. (Ed.) Le olive da tavola: Varietà, lavorazioni, legislazione, impiantistica e analitica di controllo (Table olives: cultivars, processing, law, plants and analytical control), Edagricole, Bologna, Italy, pp. 55-60.

Durán Quintana MC, Noé Arroyo F, García García P, Garrido Fernández A. 2005. Evolución del crecimiento en salmuera, a bajas temperaturas y diferentes acidulantes, de levaduras aisladas de aceitunas de mesa. Grasas y Aceites 56, 9-15.

Fernández Diez MJ. 1983. Olives, in Biotechnology, vol. 5, eds Rehm HJ & Reed G. Chemie, Weinheim, pp. 380-397. Fernández Gonzalez MJ, García García P, Garrido

Fernández A, Durán Quintana MC. 1993. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75, 226-233.

Fernández-Diez MJ, Castro Ramos R, Garrido Fernández A, Heredia Moreno A, Minguez Mosquera A, Rejano Navarro L, Nosti Vega M, García García A, Castro Ramos A. 1985. Biotecnologia de la aceituna de mesa. Instituto de la Grasa y sus Derivados, Sevilla, Spain.

Fleming HP, McFeeters RF, Thompson RL, Sanders DC. 1983. Storage stability of vegetables fermented with pH control. J. Food Sci. 48, 975-981. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1983.tb14944.x

Fleming HP. 1982. Vegetable fermentations, in Economic Microbiology, vol. 7, Academic Press, Inc., London, England.

García García P, Durán Quintana MC, Brenes Balbuena M, Garrido Fernández A. 1992. Lactic fermentation during the storage of “Alorena” cultivar untreated green table olives. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 73, 324-330.

Lin CH, Chang CY. 2005. Textural change and antioxidant properties of broccoli under different cooking treatments. Food Chem. 90, 9-15. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.053

Nanos GD, Kiritsakis AK, Sfakiotakis EM. 2002. Processing storage conditions for green “Conservolea” and “Chondrolia” table olives. Postharvest Biol. and Technol. 25, 109-115. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(01)00164-8

Özay G, Borcakli M. 1996. Effect of brine replacement and salt concentration on the fermentation of naturally black olives. Food Res. Int. 28, 553-559.

Piga A, Agabbio M. 2003. Quality improvement of naturally green table olives by controlling some processing parameters. Ital. J. Food Sci., 15, 259-268.

Sànchez AH, de Castro A, Rejano L, Montaño A. 2000. Comparative study on chemical changes in olive juice and brine during green olive fermentation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 5975-5980. doi:10.1021/jf000563u

Vescovo M, Orsi C, Scolari G, Torriani S. 1995. Inhibitory effect of selected lactic acid bacteria on microflora associated with ready-to-use vegetables. Letters in Appl. Microbiol. 21, 121-125. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.1995.tb01022.x PMid:7639993




How to Cite

Romeo FV, Piscopo A, Poiana M. Effect of acidification and salt concentration on two black brined olives from Sicily (cv moresca and giarraffa). grasasaceites [Internet]. 2010Sep.30 [cited 2023Dec.9];61(3):251-60. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1000