Evaluation of cadmium, lead, copper, iron and zinc in Turkish dietary vegetable oils and olives using electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrometry
Keywords:Chemical modifier, ETAAS and FAAS, Metals, Oils and olives
The Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe and Zn contents of some edible vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, flower, nut, corn and olive) and of olives (olive-1, black, green, black crushed with seeds and green crushed with seeds) were determined and evaluated by an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS) using an Sc + Ir + NH4H2PO4 chemical modifier mixture and flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) after microwave digestion. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures of Cd, Pb and Cu in sample solutions with and without the modifier mixture were investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) for analytes found are 0.1, 0.6, 0.9, 15.0 and 12.0 μg L–1 for Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn, respectively. The accuracy of the procedure proposed was confirmed by analyzing bovine liver 1577b standard reference material (SRM) and a spiked sample solution. The results of the analytes found were compared with certified and added values. The relative standard deviations of the analytes found were lower than 7% and the percent of recoveries obtained ranges from 96 to 101%. The Sc + Ir + NH4H2PO4 mixture proposed was applied for the determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in oils and olives. The results of analytes found in the samples were compared with international and national food quality guidelines as well as with literature values.
Acar O. 2004. Determination of lead, copper, manganese and zinc in botanic and other biological samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using scandium- containing chemical modifiers. Anal. Chim. Acta 526, 103-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.08.041
Acar O. 2005. Determination of cadmium, copper and lead in soils, sediments and sea water samples by ETAAS using a Sc + Pd + NH4NO3 chemical modifier. Talanta 65, 672-677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2004.07.035 PMid:18969851
Angioni A, Cabitza M, Russo MT, Caboni P. 2006. Influence of olive cultivars and period of harvest on the contents of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in virgin olive oils. Food Chem. 99, 525-529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.016
Ansari R, Kazi TG, Jamali M.K, Arain MB, Wagan MD, Jalbani N, Afridi HI, Shah AQ. 2009. Variation in accumulation of heavy metals in different verities of sunflower seed oil with the aid of multivariate technique. Food Chem. 115, 318-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.051
Ashraf, W., Mian, A.A. 2008. Levels of selected heavy metals in black tea varieties consumed in Saudi Arabia. B. Environ. Contam. Tox. 81, 101-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-008-9402-0 PMid:18373271
Bakkali PK., Ballesteros E, Souhail B, Martos NR. 2009. Determination of metal traces in vegetable oils from Spain and Morocco by graphite chamber atomic absorption spectroscopy following microwave digestion. Grasas Aceites 60, 490-497.
Barrera PB, Somoza, MA, Ferreiro RMS., Gonzalez RD. 1993. Palladium–magnesium nitrate as a chemical modifier for the determination of lead in mussel slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Analyst 118, 665-668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9931800665
Benincasa C, Lewis J, Perri, E, Sindona G, Tagarelli A. 2007. Determination of trace element in Italian virgin olive oils and their characterization according to geographical origin by statistical analysis. Anal. Chim. Acta 585, 366-370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.12.040 PMid:17386687
Biricik GF, Basog E lu F. 2006. Determination of mineral contents in some olives (Samanlı, Domat, Manzanilla, Ascolana) varieties. Gida 2, 67-75.
Byrne JP, Chakrabarti CL, Gilchrist GFR., Lamoureux MM, Bertels P. 1993. Chemical modification by ascorbic acid and oxalic acid in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 65, 1267-1272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac00057a025
Carrilho ENVM, González MH, Nogueira ARA, Cruz GM, Nobrega JA. 2002. Microwave-assisted acid decomposition of animal- and plant-derived samples for element analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 4164-4168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf011605x PMid:12105940
Commission on Spectrochemical and Other Optical Procedures for Analysis., 1978. Nomenclature, symbol, units and their usage in spectrochemical analysis - II. Data interpretation, Spectrochim. Acta B 33, 241-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0584-8547(78)80044-5
De Souza RM, Leocádio LG, da Silveira CLP. 2008. ICP OES simultaneous determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, and P in biodiesel by axial and radial inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Anal. Lett. 41, 1614-1621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00032710802122248
Economic European Communities. 2006. Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, Official Journal European Union, Directive No 1881/2006, Brussels.
EVM, 2003. Safe upper levels for vitamins and minerals. Report of the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. Food Standards Agency, ISBN 1- 904026-11-7.
Garrido MD, Frías I, Díaz C, Hardisson A. 1994. Concentrations of metals in vegetable edible oils. Food Chem. 50, 237-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90127-9
Guldas M. 2008. Comparison of digestion methods and trace elements determination in chocolates with pistachio using atomic absorption spectrometry. J. Food Nutr. Res. 47, 92-99.
IOOC, International Olive Oil Council. 2003. Trade standard applying to olive oils and olive-Pomace oils. Resolution No. Res-3/89-IV/03, COI/T.15/NC No.3/Rev.1.
Joint FAO/WHO, 1999. Expert committee on food additives, Summary and conclusions, in: 53rd Meeting, Rome, p. 1-10.
Juranovic Cindric I, Zeiner M, Steffan I. 2007. Trace elemental characterization of edible oils by ICP-AES and GFAAS. Microchem. J. 85, 136-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2006.04.011
Kowalewska Z, Bulska E, Hulanicki A. 1999. Organic palladium and palladium-magnesium chemical modifiers in direct determination of lead in fractions from distillation of crude oil by electrothermal atomic absorption analysis. Spectrochim. Acta B 54, 835-843. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0584-8547(99)00049-X
Kowalewska Z, Izgi B, Saracoglu S, Gücer S. 2005. Application of liquid-liquid extraction and adsorption on activated carbon to the determination of different forms of metals present in edible oils. Chemical Analysis 50, 1007-1019.
Lima EC, Barbosa Jr, F, Krug FJ, Tavares A. 2002a. Copper determination in biological materials by ETAAS using W–Rh permanent modifier. Talanta 57, 177-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(02)00011-5
Lima EC, Barbosa RV, Brasil JL, Santos AHDP. 2002b. Evaluation of different permanent modifiers for the determination of arsenic, cadmium and lead in environmental samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. 17, 1523-1529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b205905c
Llorent-Martínez EJ, Ortega-Barrales P, Fernández-de Córdova ML, Ruiz-Medina A. 2011a. Analysis of the legislated metals in different categories of olive and olive-pomace oils. Food Control 22, 221-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.07.002
Llorent-Martínez EJ, Ortega-Barrales P, Fernández de Córdova ML, Domínguez- Vidal A, Ruiz-Medina, A. 2011b. Investigation by ICP-MS of trace element levels in vegetable edible oils produced in Spain. Food Chem. 127, 1257-1262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.064
López A, García P, Garrido A. 2008. Multivariate characterization of table olives according to their mineral nutrient composition. Food Chem. 106, 369-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.055
Madejan P, Moranon T, Murillo, JM. 2006. Biomonitoring of trace elements in the leaves and fruits of wild olive and holm oak trees. Sci. Total. Environ. 355, 187-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.02.028 PMid:15890386
Mendil D, Uluozlu ÖD, Tüzen M, Soylak M. 2009. Investigation of the contents of some element in edible oil samples produced in turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry. J. Hazard. Mater. 165, 724-728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.046 PMid:19036503
Nunes LS, Barbosa JTP, Fernandes AP, Lemos VA, Dos Santos WNL, Korn MGA, Teixeira LSG. 2011. Multi-element determination of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn content in vegetable oils samples by high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry and microemulsion sample preparation. Food Chem. 127, 780-783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.147
Pehlivan BE, Arslan G, Gode F, Altun T, Özcan MM. 2008. Determination of some inorganic metals in edible vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Grasas Aceites 59, 239-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.2008.v59.i3.514
Roca A, Cabrera C, Lorenzo ML, López MC. 2000. Levels of calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, selenium and chromium in olive oils produced in Andalusia. Grasas Aceites 51, 393-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.2000.v51.i6.455
Saçmacı SG, Kartal SG . 2011. A multi-element ion-pair extraction for trace metals determination in environmental samples. Clean: Soil, Air, Water 39, 577-583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clen.201000210
Sahan Y. 2011. Some Metals in Table Olives, Olives and Olive oil in health and disease prevention, Chapter 32, pp. 299-306.
Sahan Y, Basoglu F. 2004. Determinations of some heavy metal contents of Black olives in Gemlik. Institution of Natural and Applied Sciences, Uludag University. PhD Thesis p. 167.
Sahan Y, Basoglu F, Gücer S. 2007. ICP-MS analysis of a series of metals (Namely: Mg, Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, Cd and Pb) in black and green olive samples from Bursa, Turkey. Food Chem. 105, 395-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.026
Sardans J, Montes F, Penuelas J. 2010. Determination of As, Cd, Cu and Pb in biological samples by modern electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim. Acta Part B 65, 97-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2009.11.009
Schümann K, Ettle T, Szegner B, Elsenhans B, Solomons NW. 2007. On risks and benefits of iron revisited. J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. 21, 147-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2007.06.002 PMid:17697954
Slaveykova VI, Tsalev DL. 1990. Study of tungstencontaining chemical modifiers in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal. Lett. 23, 1921-1937. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00032719008052537
Tamasi G, Cini R. 2004. Heavy metals in drinking waters from Mount Amiata (Tuscany, Italy). Possible risks from arsenic for public health in the Province of Siena. Sci. Total. Environ. 327, 41-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.10.011 PMid:15172570
TKB, 2002. Tarım ve Koyisleri Bakanlıgı, Koruma ve control Genel Mudurlugu Gıda maddelerinde belirli bulasanların maksimum seviyelerinin belirlenmesi hakkında teblig, No: 2002/63.
TS 2812,1991. Margarine vegetable origin. Turkish Standard, Ankara, Turkey.
TS 3606, 1997. Food stuffs determination of metals and other elements, atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Turkish Standard, Ankara, Turkey.
TS 774, 2003. Table olives. Turkish local food standards. Ankara, Turkey, pp.16.
Tsalev, D.L., Lampugnani, L., Georgieva, R., Chakarova, K.K., Petrov Jr, I. I. 2002. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium and lead with stabilized phosphate deposited on permanently modified platforms. Talanta 58, 331-340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(02)00250-3
Zeiner M, Steffan I, Cindric IJ. 2005. Determination of trace elements in olive oil by ICP AES and ETA-AAS: a pilot study on the geographical characterization. Microchem. J. 81, 171-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2004.12.002
Zhu F, Fan W, Wang X, Qu L, Yao S. 2011. Health risk assessment of eight heavy metals in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils consumed in China. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49, 3081-3085. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.09.019 PMid:21964195
Ziena HMS, Youssef MM, Aman ME. 1997. Quality attributes of black olives as affected by different darkening methods. Food Chem. 60, 501-508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00354-8
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.