Texture and antioxidant evolution of naturally green table olives as affected by different sodium chloride brine concentrations


  • C. Fadda Dipartimento di Agraria
  • A. Del Caro Dipartimento di Agraria
  • A. M. Sanguinetti Dipartimento di Agraria
  • A. Piga Dipartimento di Agraria




Antioxidant activity, Natural Fermentation, Sensory analysis, Texture, Texture profile analysis, Tonda di Cagliari


The results on the evolution of the texture and antioxidant activity during the processing of naturally fermented green olives are reported in the present study. The olives were brined with two different NaCl concentrations, 4 and 7%. A puncture test and a texture profile analysis (TPA) test were carried out to evaluate texture, while the antioxidant activity was assessed in consideration of the loss of absorbance of a stable radical upon reaction with a polyphenolic olive extract. The puncture test revealed both an increase and decrease in peel and flesh hardness, respectively. The olives processed with 7% NaCl concentration showed higher peel hardness than olives brined with 4% salt. The texture profile analysis did not reveal any difference between the two salt concentrations used, but showed a decrease in the value of all parameters after 30 days of brining. The antioxidant activity of the polyphenolic extract decreased significantly during processing, with a major loss after the first 30 days of processing and was higher in the 7% brined olives, than the sample treated with 4% NaCl.


Download data is not yet available.


Abriouel H, Benomar N, Cobo A, Caballero N, Fuentes MA, Pérez-Pulido R, Gálvez A. 2012. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from naturally-fermented Manzanilla Alore-a green table olives. Food Microbiol. 32, 308–316 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2012.07.006

Amiot MJ, Fleuriet A, Macheix JJ. 1986. Importance and evolution of phenolic compounds in olive during growth and maturation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34, 823–826. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00071a014

Araujo AJ, Labavitch JM, Heredia AM. 1994. Changes in the cell wall of olive fruit during processing. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42, 1194–1199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00041a027

Arroyo-López A, Durán-Quintana MC, Romero C, Rodríguez-Gómez F, Garrido-Fernández A. 2007. Effect of storage on the sugars, polyphenols, color, and microbiological changes in cracked Manzanilla-Alore-a olives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 7434–7444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf070571b

Bautista-Gallego J, Arroyo-López FN, Durán-Quintana MC, Garrido-Fernández A. 2010. Fermentation profiles of Manzanilla-Alorena cracked green table olives in different chloride salt mixtures. Food Microbiol. 27, 403–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2009.11.015

Bautista-Gallego J, Arroyo-López FN, López- López A, Garrido-Fernández A. 2011. Effect of chloride salt mixtures on selected attributes and mineral content of fermented cracked Alore-a olives. Lebensm-Wiss. Technol. 44, 120–129.

Ben Othman N, Roblain D, Chammen N, Thonart P, Hamdi M. 2009. Antioxidant phenolic compounds loss during the fermentation of Chétoui olives. Food Chem. 116, 662–669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.084

Borcackli M, özay G, Alperden I, Ozsan E, Erdek Y. 1993. Changes in chemical and microbiological composition of two varieties of olive during fermentation. Grasas Aceites 44, 253–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.1993.v44.i4-5.1075

Bourne MC. 1979. Theory and application of the puncture test in food texture measurement. In Sherman P (Ed.) Food Texture and Rheology. Academic Press, New York/London, 95–142.

Brenes-Balbuena M, García-García P, Durán-Quintana MC, Garrido-Fernández A. 1986. Estudio comparativo de sistema de conservacion de aceitunas tipo negras. Grasas Aceites 37, 123–128.

Coimbra MA, Waldron KW, Delgadillo I, Selvendran RR. 1996. Effect of processing on cell wall polysaccharides of green table olives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 2394–2401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf950637f

Durán-Quintana MC, González Cancho F. 1973. Estudio microbiologico de la fermentacion de aceitunas negras maduras en salmuera. Grasas Aceites 24, 149–159.

Farris GA, Deiana P, Budroni M. 1989. La microflora blastomicetica delle drupe e delle salamoie delle olive da mensa. Ind Aliment-Italy 28, 263–270.

Fernández-Bola-os J, Rodríguez R, Salda-a C, Heredia A. Guilén R, Jiménez A. 2001. Factors affecting the changes in texture of dressed ("ali-adas") olives. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 214, 237–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-001-0439-0

Friedman HH, Whitney JE, Szczesniak, AS. 1963. The Texturometer -A New Instrument for Objective Texture Measurement. J. Food Sci. 28, 390–396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1963.tb00216.x

Garrido-Fernández A, Fernández-Diez MJ, Adams MR 1997. Control methods. In: Garrido-Fernández A, Fernández-Diez MJ, Adams MR (Eds.) Table Olives: Production and Processing, Chapman and Hall, London, 461–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-4683-6_12

Georget DMR, Smith AC, Waldron KW, Rejano L. 2003. Effect of 'Californian' process of Hojiblanca olive (Olea europaea L.) harvested at different ripening stages. J. Sci. Food Agr. 83, 574–579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1399

González-Cancho F, Nosti Vega M, Durán-Quintana MC, Garrido-Fernández A, Fernández-Díez MJ 1975. El proceso de fermentacion en aceitunas negras maduras en salmuera. Grasas Aceites 26, 297–309.

International Olive Oil Council. 2004. Trade Standards Applying to Table Olives. COI/OT/NC no. 1, Madrid.

International Olive Oil Council. 2012. Olivae. International Olive Oil Council, Madrid.

Jiménez A, Heredia A, Guillén R, Fernández-Bola-os J. 1997. Correlation between soaking conditions, cation content of cell wall, and olive firmness during 'Spanish green olive' processing. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1653–1658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9606868

Kanavouras A, Gazouli M, Tzouvelekis Leonidas L, Petrakis C. 2005. Evaluation of black table olives in different brines. Grasas Aceites 56, 106–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.2005.v56.i2.117

Lanza B, Di Serio MG, Iannucci E, Russi F, Marfisi P. 2010. Nutritional, textural and sensorial characterisation of Italian table olives (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Intosso d'Abruzzo'). Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 45, 67–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02104.x

Malheiro R, Sousa A, Casal S, Bento A, Pereira JA. 2011. Cultivar effect on the phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of stoned table olives. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49, 450–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.11.023

Marquina D, Peres C, Caldas FV, Marques JF, Peinado JM, Spencer-Martins I. 1992. Characterization of the yeast population in olive brines. Lett. Appl. Microb. 14, 279–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.1992.tb00705.x

Marsilio V, Lanza B, Campestre C, De Angelis M. 2000. Oven dried table olives: textural properties as related to pectic composition. J. Sci. Food Agr. 80, 1271–1276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0010(200006)80:8<1271::AID-JSFA635>3.0.CO;2-O

Medina E, Gori C, Servili M, de Castro A, Romero C, Brenes M. 2010. Main variables affecting the lactic acid fermentation of table olives. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 45, 1291–1296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02274.x

Morales-Sillero A, Fernández JE, Rejano L, Jiménez R, Troncoso A. 2008. Effect of fertigation on the 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' table olive quality before and after 'Spanish-style'olive processing. HortScience 43, 153–158.

Moreno-Baquero JM, Bautista-Gallego J, Garrido-Fernández A, López-López A. 2012. Mineral Content and Sensory Characteristics of Gordal Green Table Olives Fermented in Chloride Salt Mixtures. J. Food Sci. 77, S107–S114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02573.x

Panagou EZ, Hondrodimou O, Mallouchos A, Nychas GJE. 2011. A study on the implications of NaCl reduction in the fermentation profile of Conservolea natural black olives. Food Microbiol. 28, 1301–1307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2011.05.008

Pereira JA, Pereira APG, Ferreira ICFR, Valentão P, Andrade PB, Seabra R, Estevinho L, Bento A. 2006. Table olives from Portugal: phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 8425–8431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf061769j

Piga A, Gambella F, Vacca V, Agabbio M. 2001. Response of three Sardinian olive cultivars to greek-style processing. Ital. J. Food Sci. 13, 29–40.

Piga A, Agabbio M. 2003. Quality improvement of naturally green table olives by controlling some processing parameters. Ital. J. Food Sci. 15, 259–268.

Poiana M, Romeo FV. 2006. Changes in chemical and microbiological parameters of some varieties of Sicily olives during natural fermentation. Grasas Aceites 57, 402–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.2006.v57.i4.66

Ramadan MF, Morsel J. 2006. Screening of the antiradical action of vegetable oils. J. Food Compos. Anal. 19, 838–842. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.02.013

Rejano-Navarro L, Sánchez-Gómez AH, Vega-Macia V. 2008. Nuevas tendencias en el tratamiento alcalino "cocido" de las aceitunas verdes aderezadas al estilo espa-ol o sevillano. Grasas Aceites 59, 197–204.

Rodriguez-Gómez F, Bautista-Gallego J, Romero-Gil V, Arroyo-López FN, Garrido-Fernández A, García-García P. 2012. Effects of salt mixtures on Spanish green table olive fermentation performance. Lebensm-Wiss. Technol. 46, 56–63.

Romeo FV, De Luca S, Piscopo A, Perri E, Poiana M. 2012. Effects of post-fermentation processing on the stabilisation of naturally fermented green table olives (cv Nocellara etnea). Food Chem. 116, 873–878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.037

Sousa A, Ferreira ICFR, Barros L, Bento A, Pereira JA. 2008. Effect of solvent and extraction temperatures on the antioxidant potential of traditional stoned table olives ''alcaparras''. Lebensm-Wiss. Technol. 41, 739–745.

Stone E, Sidel JL. 2004a. Affective testing. In: Stone E, Sidel JL (Eds.) Sensory Evaluation Practices, 3rd ed. Elsevier Academic Press, London, pp. 262–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012672690-9/50011-1

Stone E, Sidel JL. 2004b. Discrimination testing. In: Stone E, Sidel JL (Eds.) Sensory Evaluation Practices, 3rd ed. Elsevier Academic Press, London, pp. 177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012672690-9/50009-3

Szczesniak AS. 1963. Classification of Textural Characteristics. J. Food Sci. 28, 385–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1963.tb00215.x

Tassou CC, Katsaboxakis CZ, Georget DMR, Parker ML, Waldron KW, Smith AC, Panagou EZ. 2007. Effect of calcium chloride on mechanical properties and microbiological characteristics of cv. Conservolea naturally black olives fermented at different sodium chloride levels. J. Sci. Food Agr. 87, 1123–1131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2823



How to Cite

Fadda C, Del Caro A, Sanguinetti AM, Piga A. Texture and antioxidant evolution of naturally green table olives as affected by different sodium chloride brine concentrations. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2014Mar.30 [cited 2022Dec.9];65(1):e002. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1467




Most read articles by the same author(s)