A novel hybrid catalyst for the esterification of high FFA in Jatropha oil for biodiesel production


  • M. Mushtaq Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
  • I. M. Tan Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
  • M. Sagir Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS - Chemical Engineering Department, University of Gujrat
  • M. Suleman Tahir Chemical Engineering Department, University of Gujrat
  • M. Pervaiz Govt. College University Lahore




Biodiesel, Esterification, Free Fatty Acids, Heterogeneous catalysts, Jatropha oil


The synthesis and application of a hybrid catalyst for the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in Jatropha oil is reported. Three catalysts, namely silica sulfuric acid, silica supported boron trifluoride and a combination of the two in the weight ratio of 1:1, the hybrid catalyst, were investigated. Jatropha oil samples with a wide range of FFA values i.e. 6.64 to 45.64% were prepared and utilized for the experimental work. This study revealed that silica sulfuric acid and silica supported boron trifluoride were not very effective when used independently. However, a strong synergistic effect was noted in the catalytic activity of the hybrid catalyst which reduced the FFA value from 45.64 to 0.903% with a conversion efficiency of 98%. Reusability of the catalyst was also tested and the results were promising in up to three cycles of use when used with lower amounts of FFA (6.64%) in the oil. Under the influence of the catalyst, the reaction was found to follow first order kinetics. Activation energy was calculated to be 45.42 KJ·mol-1 for 2 wt.% of hybrid catalyst. The products were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques and the results are reported.


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How to Cite

Mushtaq M, Tan IM, Sagir M, Suleman Tahir M, Pervaiz M. A novel hybrid catalyst for the esterification of high FFA in Jatropha oil for biodiesel production. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2016Sep.30 [cited 2022Dec.9];67(3):e150. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1616




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