Study on the effect of activated carbon with bleaching earth on the reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bleached soybean oil
Keywords:Activated carbon, Bleaching earth, High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Soybean oil
Considering the importance of bleaching earth with activated carbon for reducing the Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an important chemical contaminant, this study was conducted to confirm the effects of the bleaching process on the reduction or elimination of the BαP index and 4 PAH (BαA, CHR, BβF, BαP) contents in soybean oil. The bleaching process was carried out with different amounts of bleaching earth (1% w/w) and activated carbon (0.1% up to 0.5% w/w). A HPLC/FLD device was employed to determine the PAHs in the oil samples after undergoing extraction and clean-up procedures. The results of linearity indicated that there was a linear response with high linear regression coefficients of determination for all the 4 PAHs analyzed. (R2 > 0.9950). Furthermore, the recovery percentage was calculated from 83.8% to 106.2%; LOD and LOQ were 0.06–0.2 μgkg−1 and 0.2–0.61 μgkg−1, respectively. An analysis of the PAH contents indicated that the bleaching process, including a 0.27% to 0.5% w/w activated carbon application led to the elimination of the PAH content. Since vegetable oils have been shown to be the major sources of PAHs in the diet, the industrial use of activated carbon during the bleaching of vegetable oils is highly recommended.
Akdogan A, Buttinger G, Wenzl T. 2016. Single-laboratory validation of a saponification method for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils by HPLC-fluorescence detection. Food Additives Contaminants Part A 33, 215–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2015.1127430
Azadmard-Damirchi S, Dutta PC. 2007. Free and esterified 4, 4?-dimethylsterols in hazelnut oil and their retention during refining processes. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 84, 297–304. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1025-1
Camargo MCR, Antoniolli PR, Vicente E. 2011. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Brazilian commercial soybean oils and dietary exposure. Food Additives Contaminants Part B 4, 152–159. https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2011.585244 PMid:24785726
Camargo MCR, Antoniolli PR, Vicente E. 2012. Evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content in different stages of soybean oils processing. Food Chem. 135, 937–942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.06.031 PMid:22953808
Codex alimentarius developed a code of practice for the reduction of contamination of food with PAHs from smoking and direct drying processes (CAC/RCP 68, 2009).
Dassilva SA, Sampaio GR, Dasilva Torres EAF. 2017. Optimization and validation of a method using UHPLC-fluorescence for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold-pressed vegetable oils. Food Chem. 221, 809–814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.098 PMid:27979277
Domingo JL, Nadal M. 2015. Human dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A review of the scientific literature. Food Chem. Tox. 86, 144–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2015.10.002 PMid:26456806
Drabov L, Tomaniova M, Kalachova K, Kocourek V. 2013. Application of solid phase extraction and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils. Food Control 33, 489–497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.03.018
European Commission EC. 2011a. Commission Regulation (EU) No 835/2011 of 19 August 2011 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foodstuffs. Official Journal of European Commission 215, 7–8.
European Commission EC. 2011b. Commission Regulation (EU) No836/2011 of 19 August 2011 amending regulation(EC) No 333/2007 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, inorganic tin, 3-MCPD and benzo (a) pyrene in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union 215, 9–16.
ISO Method(2006)15753. in International Standard Methods for Animal and vegetable fats and oils. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. ISO 15753.
Jiang D, Xin C, Li W, Chen J, Li F, Chu Z, Xiao P, Shao L. 2015. Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils marketed in Shandong of China. Food Chem. Tox. 83, 61–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2015.06.001 PMid:26072099
Krajian H, Odeh A. 2016. Levels of 15 + 1 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different edible oils available on the Syrian market. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds.
Lacoste F. 2014. Undesirable substances in vegetable oils: anything to declare?. Oilseeds and fats, Crops Lipid 21, A10.
Pandey M, Mishra K, Khanna S. 2004. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commonly consumed edible oils and their likely intake in the Indian population. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-004-1030-4
PayananT, Leepipatpiboon N, Varanusupakul P. 2013. Low-temperature cleanup with solid-phase extraction for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils by reversed phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Food Chem. 141, 2720–2726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.092 PMid:23871016
Shi L, Liu Y, Zhang D. 2016. Incidence and survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils in China. Food Control 62, 165–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.10.037
Singh L, Varshney JG, Agarwal T. 2016. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food. Food Chem. 199, 768–781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.12.074 PMid:26776034
Stenerson K, Shimelis O, Halpenny MR, Espenschied K, Ye MM. 2015. Analysis of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Olive Oil after Solid-Phase Extraction Using aDual-Layer Sorbent Cartridge Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63, 4933–4939. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf506299f PMid:25938777
Taghvaee Z, Piravivanak Z, Rezaee K, Faraji M, Nanvazadeh S. 2015a. The potential of low temperature extraction method for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in refined olive and refined pomace olive oils by HPLC/FLD. Nut. Food Sci. Res. 2, 47–54. http://nfsr.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1- 104- fa.html
Taghvaee Z, Piravivanak Z, Rezaee K, Faraji M. 2015b. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Olive and Refined Pomace Olive Oils with Modified Low Temperature and Ultrasound-Assisted Liquid–Liquid Extraction Method Followed by the HPLC/ FLD. Food Anal. Methods 9, 1220–1227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-015-0297-1
Taghvaee Z, Piravivanak Z, Rezaee K, Faraji M. 2016. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oil and refined pomace olive oils HPLC/FLD. J. Food Biosci. Technol. 6, 77–85.
Teixeira H, Oliveira M, Casal S. 2007. PAHs content in sunflower, soybean and virgin olive oils: Evaluation in commercial samples and during refining process. Food Chem. 104, 106–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.007
Vaisali C, Charanyaa S, Belur PD, Regupathi I. 2015. Refining of edible oils: a critical appraisal of current and potential technologies. Internat. J. Food Sci. Techn. 50, 13–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12657
Yu Y, Wang Y, Jin Q, Dong H, Wang X. 2014. Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soybean Oil and its Dynamic Changes Refining Processing. Adv. J. Food Sci. Techn. 6, 2. https://doi.org/10.19026/ajfst.6.3028
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.