Inoculation with acetic acid bacteria improves the quality of natural green table olives
Keywords:Acetobacter pasteurianus, Aerobic fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum, Mix starter, Natural table olives, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
This study aims to develop a method for the preparation of natural table olives using locally selected microorganisms and without resorting to the usual techniques which employ lye treatment and acids. The effects of parameters, such as lye treatment, inoculation with yeasts, substitution of organic acids with vinegar and/or acetic acid bacteria, and finally alternating aeration have been assessed. Four different combinations were applied to the “Picholine marocaine” olive variety using indigenous strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum S1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae LD01 and Acetobacter pasteurianus KU710511 (CV01) isolated respectively from olive brine, Bouslikhen dates and Cactus. Two control tests, referring to traditional and industrial processes, were used as references. Microbial and physicochemical tests showed that the L3V combination (inoculated with A. pasteurianus KU710511 and L. plantarum S1 under the optimal growth conditions of the Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) strain with 6% NaCl) was found to be favorable for the growth of the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strain which plays the key role in olive fermentation. This result was confirmed by sensory evaluation, placing L3V at the top of the evaluated samples, surpassing the industrial one where a chemical debittering treatment with lye was used. In addition, alternating aeration served to increase the microbial biomass of both AAB and LAB strains along with Saccharomyces cerevisiae LD01 strain, but also to use lower concentration of NaCl and to reduce the deterioration of olives compared to the anaerobic fermentation process. Finally, a mixed starter containing the three strains was prepared in a 10-L Lab-fermenter from the L3V sample in order to improve it in subsequent studies. The prepared starter mixture could be suitable for use as a parental strain to prepare table olives for artisan and industrial application in Morocco.
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